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This blog aims to be a directory of ancient sites from the Bronze Age, excavated or not, and of place names found in the most ancient writings.

It primarily targets the search of the names cities of that time.

Originally, this approach was performed by the language specialists of the writings found. With other texts, they have drawn inferences and identifications which are for the most part now accepted by the community of historians.

But, sometimes, lack of tablets led to uncertain identifications that are based primarily on the accepted history at the time of the discovery and assumptions about distances of travel of men of the antiquity. The search for an ancient city mentioned in a given text has mainly been made considering that it was not too far from the place of discovery of the text.

In multilingual areas, comparisons have been made and enabled spectacular progress on ancient history, especially in Syria and in Anatolia, filling, in part, a lack of consultation between experts of the main ancient regions (Mesopotamia, Egypt , Levant, Anatolia).

When new tablets are found and translated, the adjusting of the history is slow to take place .. or does not happen .... I think it's the case of the recent exhumation of Ebla.


These observations have led me to assess the reasonableness of commonly accepted reconciliations, and to make other proposals that seem me more in line with the findings of the archaeological excavations. In those cases, with the aim to make a clear distinction between consensus and my proposal, I chose to write my arguments with a specific color defined by the legend exposed latter.

Thus, I develop in this blog proposals on isolated sites not formally identified. In this case the text is in blue characters. And alternatives on groups of cities :

1. As early as 2000 BC, during the last days of the karum of Kanesh, I consider that Kültepe's texts show the use of boats or barges ("ereqatim" in Akkadian, which was wrongly translated by "wagons") along the Anatolian coast to transport goods of the Assyrians, during the end of the karum of Kanes :

1.1. The narrow passage, also called « Sukinnu Route », appears to me a maritime way at the west of Anatolia and not to the East;

1.2. Some place names of the Amarna letters seems to me on this coast, see here ;

1.3 The countries  Amurru / Mira, Mushki or Mukish were extended to the south of Anatolia;

2. An approach other than the "mirror toponymy" from the texts of Tel Hariri, the ancient Mari, leading to the emergence of new identifications in three geographical areas:

  • the Idamaras (See the article here);

  • the Numha (See the article here);

  • the Yamutbal (See the article here).

3. Identifications around Lake Urmia, based especially on the 8th Sargon II campaign (See the article here).

4. An alternative on the countries of Akshak, of Upiof Kish and of Lagash from Tello tablets (See the article here).

5. Archeology confirms significant human displacements on the base of torque bearers, see here).

6. Another approach on the names of the cities of Egypt of the pharaohs.


Bob Gastineau


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