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Here is a toponym, Nihriya, which is found in most of the ancient archives: those of the Assyrian merchants of Kanesh, those of Hatussa, those of Mari, those of Tell Leilan, those of Ugarit and in the Neo-Assyrian texts.

Many researchers have wondered, quite justifiably, whether this toponym should not be confused with that of Nairi, which rather evokes a country, notably in the Neo-Assyrian texts.

According to the tablets of Kultepe, Nihriya, at the beginning of the second millennium BC, was on the road between Assur and Kanesh.

XIV77 of Mari's archives situates Nihriya in the Zalmaqum, which also included the cities of Irritus and Harran as all three were under the control of Bûnû-ma-Addu. I19 + refers to a movement of troops from Nihriya to Sudâ which can be interpreted as a movement towards the Yapturum.

In the archives of Tell Leilan, this city is called Nihru, which is really close in its pronunciation with Nihriya and Nairi. It appears to harbor enemies of the North.

The Hattusa archives confirm Nihriya's geographical position near Sura. A famous battle opossed the Hittites and the Assyrians, during the 13th century BC, took place between these two cities. The Hittites were led by Tuthaliya IV and the Assyrians Tukulti-Ninurta.


In "The Kingdom of the Hittites," Trevor Bryce considers that Nairi of the Neo-Assyrian sources is equivalent to Nihriya from the Mesopotamian, Hittites and Urartu sources. He sees this city, like other researchers, at the north-east of Diyarbakir. This positioning is based in particular on the rather precise annals of Ashurnasirpal II which evokes his conquests in the Kadmuhu country of Mount Kashiari and where Tušhan appears as a frontier town with the country of Nairi. While Sargon II, in his time, on the occasion of his 8th campaign, describes Uaiais as a border town between three countries: Urartu, the land of the Manneans and Na'iri. Hubushkia is then a royal city of this last kingdom.

Thus, in the first millennium BCE, the country of Nairi is situated to the north-east of the Tigris and to the west of the Lake of Urmia. But nothing excludes that it had this geographical area before, in the second millennium BC and that Nihriya was in this perimeter.

Also the research area of ​​Nihriya is wide, to the East as to the north or to the West of Sura.


Jared L. Miller defends Nihriya's position at Kazane Hoyuk and considers the city to be independent of the country of Nairi, even if Ursu is also a candidate

The high dating of the site of Kazane Höyük (from the period of Halaf until 1800 BCE) is not in favor of Nihriya which must have existed longer, because mentioned by a king of Urartu, with spelling "Nahri" really close to the spelling of Tell Leilan, under the dependence of Sura.







My notes of veracity :

Nihriya was the site of Kazane Hoyuk: 2,5 / 5

Nihriya is at the origin of the denomination of the country of Nairi: 2,5 / 5

Tag(s) : #Region:Anatolie, #Empire of the Hittites, #Old Assyrian Empire, #Neo Assyrian Empire, #Kingdom:Mari, #Kingdom:Mitanni, #Kingdom:Nairi

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