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In Anatolia, at the beginning of the second millennium BC, Hurama appeared in the texts of Kanesh as an important city with a prince at his head, with a karum, not far from Timelkiya and very close to Salahsuwa and Kussara. By land transport, ie the using of donkeys, Hurama was the solution, when the Sukinnu Road was not practicable, for goods arrived at Timelkiya. This had happen during a period of time when the ports of Cilicia were not practicable due to wars in the regions of Salatuwar, Ulama and Wahsusana.


Here are two excerpts that justify the proposed positioning:


1. From the text Kt94 / k1238 - which served as the basis for several researchers to assert that Kussara and Hurama was at the east of Kanesh - it is necessary to retain only the proximity between Hurama and Kussara. It is a letter from Salim-Assur to his representatives Ennam-Assur and Ali-ahum: "I am in Tegarama. Before I pick up my goods - urgently - before I arrive, collect all the money and keep it there in my house. Do not send money to the City. The day you receive my mail, Ali-Ahum must come to meet me either in Hurama or in Kussara, and he must bring all the money that is available. Textiles that Ali-Ahum carries for contraband must remain under seal."

Here, it must be understood that Salim-Assur is traveling, he is in Tegarama but without goods with him. Its speed is probably quite fast. The place of his house is more certainly Durhumit than Kanesh  - other couriers show that he lives in Durhumit - and it is not known if he passes there. He asks for a meeting with Ali-Ahum especially to recover money. It is not known where Ali-Ahum receives this letter, probably in an even more distant place. Hurama and Kussara, on the road to Salim-Assur, appear quite close each one to the other.


2. The text Kt 94 / k924 shows a closeness between Timelkiya, Hurama and Salahsuwa: « Of the 197 textiles that were left in Timelkiya, x are intended for smuggling. The authorities of Salahsuwa and Hurama have lifted the "nishatum-tax" ».

Here it is necessary to understand that there is an agreement between the two cities of Hurama and Salahsuwa to collect together this tax at the port of Timelkiya.


I think the Hurama toponym is found in the classic Keramon Agora, which location is disputed. And this may very well be the site of Beycesultan whose occupation is attested from the beginnings of the Bronze age until the Byzantine period.








My notes of veracity :

Hurama was close to Salahsuwa and Kussara : 3/5

Tag(s) : #Region:Anatolie, #Old Assyrian Empire

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