Arpad is abundantly mentioned on the stelae of Sfire. Indeed, these stelae constitute an agreement between a king of KTK and a king of the land of Arpad, that is to say between the country of Musri (well mentioned on the steles) and the country of the Arameans.
Of the Assyrian annals and those of Urartu, it is known that Arpad was the capital of an Aramaic kingdom, in the 10th century BC called Bit Agusi. The city was conquered by Adad-Nirari III of Assyria, but without this one imposing a lasting integration to the Assyrian Empire. As a result, Arpad allied himself with the King of Urartu Sarduri II. It is Ashur-Nirari who has definitely defeated Arpad, when the region has indeed become an Assyrian province.
Most historians position Arpad at the Tell Rifat. B. Hrozny, the first translator of the Hittite language, excavated it during 1924 and 1925 : this site were called «Tell Erfad». In particular, there, was found a statuette of about 8cm of a Hittite man, dated from the 14th to 12th centuries BC, numerous pottery and a neo-Assyrian seal-cylinder.
The denomination of the tell comes directly from a distortion of the old name because during the 11th century the city was called al-Arfad: a Syrian writer, Ali ibn Dawoud, was born there.
The new possibilities of satellite views show that the Tell Rifat has old fortifications:
I think that this city is mentioned in the archives of Mari, under the name Aparha.
X178 evokes a raid of La.rim-Namahâ of Aparhâ on the city of Zihlalum.
Mes notes de vraisemblance :
Arpad was located at Tell Rifaat: 4/5
Aparha is the designation of Arpad in the 2nd millennium BC : 3/5