During the first part of the 2nd millennium BC, Kakmum is mentioned in the archives of Shemsharah, Mari and Tell Leilan: A person named Gurgurrum, who wanted to be king of Kakmum, defeated the king of Qabra.
In the tablet L.87-929 + 944, Hammurabi of Aleppo says : "Why Astamar-adad (king of Kurda), Mutija (king of Andarig) and Sepallu took command of the Kakmum troops and destroyed the land of Yussan and the country of Yamutbal, and brought these regions out of my power?"
This country finds itself 1000 years later in several neo-Assyrian inscriptions of Sargon II. This king disrupted the land of Kakmu. In the detailed description of his eighth campaign to Andia, Sissirtu, Urartu and the Nairi, he said that he closed the doors to the Kakmeans, powerful enemies.
Clearly, this toponym is to be distinguished from those of Kakulatum, which appears in a year name of Eshnunna, and Kadmukh or Kadmuhu, which was conquered by Adad-nirari I in the 13th century BCE and mentioned by Ashurnasirpal II to the west of the Tigris.
Astour proposed a positioning of Kakmum between Ekallatum and Erbil. This is also what emerges from this study:
It is also in this region that Gaugameles, a battlefield of Alexander the Great, against Darius III, king of the Persians, was sought after, in the 4th century BC. The plain of Gaugamèles is located by the texts to a hundred kilometers of Arbèles, the ancient Erbil, east of Mosul, in the present Kurdistan.
Researchers position Gaugamèles at Tel Gomel, on the present commune of Bardarash, not far from the ancient Nineveh.
The phonetic proximity of the two toponyms, Kakmum and Gaugamèles, seems to me an additional argument to assert that these are two designations of the same city with a gap of several hundred years. I think the arrival of the final "l" is linked to the addition of the term "alum" which means "city".
For these reasons, we encourage the projects of archaeological excavation in Tel Gomel: