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Khirbet ed Diniyeh is located on the right bank of the Euphrates, a few tens of kilometers to the east of the ancient town of Mari. From 1981 to 1984, this site was the subject of six campaigns of rescue excavations linked to the so-called "Haditha" dam. The work was carried out by a French Archaeological Delegation in Iraq under the direction of Christine Kepinski-Lecomte.

The study of ceramics and of the names of the occupants show that the small town was at the crossroads of two traditions: one Babylonian and the other western. Thus, in the house of Ris-Samas, although the names are those of Babylon origin, the ceramics are similar to those found in Anatolia. This is confirmed by the texts, which evoke a trade of long distances along the Euphrates, notably with Carchemish, Halab, Emar, Tuttul and Mari.

The excavations delivered a hundred cuneiform tablets. These texts were found in the dozens of "houses" that constituted the city. The scientists were thus able to know the various authors of the texts found and thus also the owners of the buildings of the small town, which had a limited longevity from the 18th to the 17th centuries BC. Khirbet ed Diniyeh could be identified, with certainty, in the city of Harradum, abundantly mentioned in the tablets.

According to the text KD100 a neighboring town was called "Hurratum". Here it is: "Puzratanu sued Sapi-ilim. Napsuna-Addu, the royal judge and the elders of the city imposed a sentence upon him. They decided to shave his head. They placed her hair on a shelf. If Puzratanu sues again, he will have to pay 5 silver mines to the palace, and bitumen will be poured over his head. Witnesses: Rabbabânum, Ahilama, Ili-rabi, Yaskunanum: four representatives of Harradum; Yatte-Addu, Yasub-Addu, Yahsammu, Marasum: the four representatives of Hurratum; Zabkum, the soldier. Done on the 7th of the month of Tebetu. "

 

Harradum was probably founded by the kingdom of Eshnunna. Under Yahdun-Lim of Mari, the city of Harradum formed the border. Then it was integrated into the kingdom of Mari under Samsi-Addu and Zimri-Lim. A letter from the archives of Mari (A.1289) mentions these facts.

According to Francis Joannes, in "Haradum II," most of the tablets found are dated from 1726 to 1629 BC, from the reign of Samsu-iluma to that of Amm-saduqa, kings of Babylon. The city was evacuated under this last sovereign, probably following floods of the Euphrates.

It was during the arrival of the Assyrians in the 11th century BC that Khirbet ed Diniyeh has been reoccupied and fortified. His name is then "Haradu".

The city was then integrated into a kingdom of name "Suhu and Mari" which was dominated by the Arameans. They are exhumed tablets at "Sur Jar'a", the ancient island named Ana, which made it possible to understand the history of the region until the 8th century BC: sometimes independent, sometimes subject to powerful neighbors such as the Assyrians, the Babylonians, and the Arameans.

 

For an explanation on the colors of text, click here.

For French language, click here.

My notes of veracity :

Khirbet ed Diniyeh is the ancient city of Harradum / Haradu: 5/5

Tag(s) : #Region: Mesopotamia, #Empire of Assyria, #Kingdom : Eshnunna, #Kingdom:Mari, #Kingdom: Babylon

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