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From 1964 to 1974 a French archaeological mission excavated the ancient Roman city of Salamis, which became Constantia in the 4th century AD. 1800 coins, mostly in bronze, cover the period from Alexander the Great (4th century BC) to the Byzantine times (8th century AD) in various buildings of the city of Roman times. Until recently, there were no traces prior to the 5th century BCE.

But Mr. G. Roux, a hundred yards from the temple of Zeus, found a tomb dated from the 11th century BC. The abundance of materials has revived archaeological interest in Salamis of Cyprus. Some ceramics are of an even more remote period (13th and 12th century). On a scarabée was read the Egyptian hieroglyphic inscription: "Amon-Ré, master of justice, is my lord". Egypt, Phenicia, Mycenaean, Greece and Crete appear as origins of some of the burial objects.

The rampart of the city was also recognized, in its earliest period, from the 11th century BCE. A human occupation since the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC is now accepted in the mouth of the Pedieos.

Some researchers consider that Salamine is mentioned, in the form "Sillua", in the royal Asarhaddon inscription of Assyria of 10 kings / cities of Ya Adnana. I do not share this point of view, for at that time Salamis, according to the archaeological excavations, does not seem to be an important city. But, in the letter RS 20.03, found on the site of Ugarit, it is probably Salamis who is evoked in the Salamiya form by a Hittite governor, Sukur-Tesub, newly assigned to the kingdom of Mukis in a letter addressed to the king of Ugarit, Ammistemru, about a journey of Saripitu coming to make offerings at the foot of a sacred mountain. The governor demanded that the king of Ugarit hand over the Saripitu into the hands of the mayor of Salmiya so that the latter would provide them with the necessary supplies. This letter, dated to the end of the second millennium BC, is contemporary with the ramparts of the city.

In the texts of Ugarit, Salamine is probably spelled "Salma" in the agreement between Suppiluliuma and Niqmaddu assigning cities to Ugarit. In the "Texts Akkadiens of Ugarit" by Sylvie Lackenbacher, Salma appears after "Halbu-nana" which obviously became the land of Ya Adnana of the Neo-Assyrian texts. This would confirm a partition of the island of Cyprus towards the end of the Bronze Age.


For an explanation on the colors of text, click here.

For French language, click here.

My notes of veracity :

Salamis was called Salmiya or Salma during the Bronze Age: 3/5

Tag(s) : #Region: Cyprus, #Empire of the Hittites

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