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During 1773, P. Hyacinthe Hintz, a language professor at the University of Cagliari, discovered a stela near the church of San Efisio, in Pula, Sardinia, not far from the ruins of Nora. There was recognized an archaic Phoenician writing comparable to those found on the island of Cyprus. His dating was assessed between the 11th and 8th centuries BC. But his translation made much ink. Here are two, very distant one from the other:

  • "At Tarshish, Habis, the legitimate prince was driven out. He was restored. In a war, King Tou of Nora made him return, prince at the gate of the water."

  • "Temple of Cape Nugar which is in Sardinia. That the stela which Melekyaton has built be preserved in its entirety : this temple the prince built it in honor of Pumai."

Tarsis can be Tartessos in Spain or Tarsus, not far from Adana, in Cilicia, on the south coast of Anatolia. The water gate is interpreted as the Strait of Gibraltar. Pumai is deemed to be a deity of Kition of Cyprus.

The various translations all refer to a king, or a prince. And it is probable that this city was on an island in the antiquity.

In "Carthage," Khaled Melliti reports that Polybius in Book III of his "Histories" evokes an area of influence of Phenicia and Carthage that encompassed Sardinia, Africa and the western part of Sicily on the agreement of 509 BC, which was the oldest known Greco-Romans treaty.

Systematic excavations were undertaken by G. Pesce in the 1950s, but without documentation. However, many buildings or temples have been identified:

The precedence of Nora is subject to many doubts in the sense that archaeological findings are not in tune with the high dating of the stele.

Also, it is possible that this city is mentioned on Assyrian texts of the 7th century BC. I think that Nure, from the royal Asarhaddon inscription of Assyria about the country of Ya Adnana, is this city of Sardinia. Bususu appears to be the king at that time.

In the texts of Alalakh, among a list of individuals and cities - including Kulanti, probably Iyalanti, and Alawari - is a place name, Nariea that seems to me to correspond, and which goes back to the probable creation of this port city at the end of the Bronze Age.


For an explanation on the colors of text, click here.

For French language, click here.

My notes of veracity :

Nora, in Sardinia, has this name since the end of the Bronze Age: 2,5 / 5

Tag(s) : #Region: Europa, #Kingdom: Ya Adnana

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