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Initially, Amkuwa, or Ankuwa, was proposed for the site of Alisar Höyük, located between the current towns of Sarikaya and Sorgun, in Yozgat province, central Anatolia. It was excavated from 1927 to 1932 by the Oriental Institute of Chicago. Some cuneiform tablets were found there (between 50 and 100), from the period of the Assyrian merchants.

The proposal was related to the fact that Amkuwa is the most frequently place name mentions in this texts. But doubts have arisen from the fact that it is certain that the city existed under Hatusili III, but the archeology of Alisar Höyük does not prove it clearly.


Kanesh' texts show that there was a queen in Amkuwa. Kt94 / K1237 defined her as the sister of the king of Shashasama in records statements in Burushaddum. This very particular toponym of Shashasama does not find in other writings of the Assyrian merchants.

But this tablets, like all the Paleo-Assyrian texts, present two difficulties:

  • We never know if it is a copy of a tablet sent or a tablet received;

  • Some merchants had privileged trading posts with other cities of Anatolia, sometimes very fare away.


The proposal of a position of Ankuwa in the classical Ancyre is based on four main arguments:

  • A Alisar's tablet no. E844 concerning the detained of 6 persons by the Burulum of Amkuwa was resolved by the intervention of Anita, now admitted as King of Kussar, the ancestor of Hattusili I. And therefore the town of Ankuwa was probably dependent and not far from that place of power that I position west of Anatolia (see here).

  • A tablet of Bogazköy evokes a journey from Hattusa to Ankuwa in three days with Imralla and then Hobigassa as places of accommodation every night. Moreover, a river is evoked not far from Imralla. It is likely that this place is the present town of Erenler not far from the Kizilirmak. This suggests a crossing of the great river towards Hacibali. Based on the phonetic, Hobigassa may be Ahiboz, to the south-east of Ankara. Two centuries ago, Aghaboz, is certified along a Roman road in the direction of Halys towards Tchikin Aghyl, today Kiskin.

  • A certain Askaliya had been appointed administrator of Ankuwa. He died poor because of the thinness of the herds of Ankuwa and Kuzuruwa (possibly Keçiören). And Askaliya is a name that appears in a nearby Inandik tablet.

  • During a review of the troops in Ankuwa, there were warriors from Taruka, Tummana, Hakmis, Sanahuitta and Hattena: towns all at the north and at the west of Hattusa.


Above all, archaeological excavations showed human occupation during the Bronze Age on four sites around Ankara:

  • Eti Yokusu, 5 km north of the capital, where Turkish archaeologists have discovered a palace without a dating;

  • Ahlatlibel to the south-west;

  • Koçumbeli in the south-west;

  • Karaoğlan in the south east.






My notes of veracity :

2000 years ago, Ankara was called Ancyra: 5/5

4000 years ago, Amkuwa was the classic Ancyra: 2,5 / 5

3500 years ago, Ankuwa was the classic Ancyra: 2,5 / 5

Tag(s) : #Region:Anatolie, #Empire of the Hittites, #Old Assyrian Empire

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