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The tell Munbaqa was examined by German teams. In 1973 and 1974, Winfried Orthmann of Saarbrücken, was director of excavations, before Lake Assad was filled with water. In 1977, it was Alfred Maurer of the Saarbrücken University. Since 1978, although, the site is partly destroyed by the rising waters, they are carried out under the responsibility of Dittmar Machule of the University of Hamburg.

The tell is located on the left bank of the Euphrates, very steep, occupied by numerous rock formations, north of the ancient city of Emar, but on the other bank.

The excavations made it possible to draw up the main phases of occupation of the city:

  • From 2600 to 2100 BC, it included sanctuaries, temples and a funerary chamber;

  • From 2000 to 1600 BC, other temples and internal fortifications made up of ramparts flanked by two bastions and turrets, show the dynamism of the city at the time;

  • From 1600 to 1200 BC, complementary dwellings, external fortifications, renovation and enlargements of the temples were carried out.

15 clay tablets, dated from the Final Bronze, were discovered there, with numerous references in the name of Ekalte.

The phonetic proximity of this name to that of Ekallatum, abundantly mentioned in the tablets of Mari's archives, might lead one to believe that it was the same city a few hundred years gap. But the contexts of the multiple mentions of Ekallatum on the tablets of Mari, incite to position this last city towards the Tiger, not far from Assur.

Ekalte was most likely the town called "Yakaltum" on A.2721 and IV 6 of the Mari archives. The last tablet evokes boats, kept at disposal by a man named Yasub-El, to make the crossing of the Euphrates at Yakaltum.


For an explanation on the colors of text, click here.

For French language, click here.

My notes of veracity :

The Tell Munbaqa was the town called Ekalte during the end of the Bronze Age: 4/5

The Tell Munbaqa was the town called Yakaltum during the beginnings of the Bronze Age: 3/5

Tag(s) : #Region: Mesopotamia, #Kingdom:Mari

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