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The Tell Billa was excavated by the University of Pennsylvania, in the 1930s, under the direction of E.A. Speiser. This site is located north-east of ancient Nineveh, about 25 km from the famous city. The results were published by Finkelstein in 1953: cuneiform tablets were found there. Many of them are administrative texts of the 9th century BCE. About 70 were dated from the 2nd millennium BC. They come from a chief of the district of Sibaniba.

In the texts of Tell Billa, the other names mentioned are the Bit-Zimani district, near that of Sibaniba, and the towns of Adiu and Ekallate. It is the cities of Idu and Ekallatum in the archives of the Tell Shemsharah.


The potteries found on this site show that the city actually existed at least around 1400 BC :

In two tablets of the archives of Tell Leilan, L.87-597 and L.87-692a, Sabbanum appears not far from Amaz, which may be the town of Bit-Zimani some 800 years later.


In X122 of Mari, the king said, "I have beaten the enemy who hindered me from Asnakkum to Sabbanum" And undoubtedly the territory thus conquered is the one that will later be called "Country of Idamaras".


For an explanation on the colors of text, click here.

For French language, click here.

My notes of veracity :

At the beginning of the first millennium BC, Sibaniba was the tell Billa: 4/5

In the 2nd millennium BC, Sabbanum or Sibanum was the tell Billa: 3/5

Tag(s) : #Region: Mesopotamia, #Empire of Assyria, #Kingdom:Mari, #Kingdom:Idamaras, #Kingdom: Assyria

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