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Here is, from the archives of Mari, the text on Agade, which shows that its location was still known by the rulers of the 18th century BCE.

It is "I 36", which is a Samsi-Adu letter to his son Yasmah-Addu, king of Mari: "Until the 20th of this month I will reside in Agade. Then I will go up the river to the City. But you will not come with me. Wait 5 days in Râpiqum, after my departure, and when this month will have only 5 days, leave for Mari. ... ".

An unknown remains : the name of the river. Another exists on the "city" of Samsi-Adu destination: for some it would be Ekallâtum, for other Subat-Enlil, but it can also be Subat-Samas or the name of a locality called " the city ". The analysis of the many texts of Samsi-Adu does not make it possible to decide, especially because this sovereign was extremely mobile.

My analysis is that there are two other texts from the archives of Mari which, supplemented by those of Tell Bia (Tuttul), give more precise informations.

Here is an excerpt from tablet VI 76:

When we reached the camp of Appan, I said this to my Lord: "The Benjaminite country is delivered to you. This country is clothed in the Akkadian habit (translation not safe for "clothed in the habit"). My Lord must honor the capital of royalty. Just as you are king of Bedouins, you are also, secondly, king of an Akkadian territory. My lord, therefore, must not ride on horses. It is on a nûbalum and on mules that my Lord must ascend in order to honor his capital. This is what I said to my Lord.

I think it should be understood that the travelers, arrived at the camp of Appan, are very close to the former capital of Akkad. And that therefore a possible stage to find the location of Akkad is to determine that of Appân.

Now this last toponym appears both in other texts of Mari and in those of Tuttul.

In addition, on the tell Bi'a, archives of Sumhu-rabi, a governor, were found, confirming that this person was governor of Tuttul for at least three years. The similarities between the tablets "A.2" (Sumhu-rabi) and "A.250" (Sumu-hadu), both evoking a city of Der and Balih, show in fact that Appan, Humsan and Sehrum were near the Balikh, in the neighborhood of Tuttul. Sûmû-hadû appears to be a later governor, under Zimri-Lim.

This is reinforced by XIV 7 of the governor of Saggaratum who reports a storm of hail in his area, then the words of a high priest of Dagan in Tuttul: "He began to declare" ... .. (gap) .. .. it made fall on the ground. From the temple of Dagan of Sarri Amnânum to the property of Sumu-hadu which is located in Manhama, it hit the property of Sumu-hadu directly on a surface of 20 arpents, then it immediately ascended to the limit of the steppe. Besides this grain which is completely destroyed, there was no other damage. "

Here the temple of Dagan, attested at Tuttul, is called "Sarri Amnânum". A Sarri toponym has been identified near Qabra, but another is certified along the Euphrates, upstream of Terqa, notably by XIII 123 and XIV 83. Zarri, Sahru, Sarrum or Sehrum must refer to one of these two places. Probably the origin of the denomination "Syria". As for Amnânum or Amnân, it designates the tribe from most of the leaders of that era.

Tuttul excavations involved several tells. The temple of Dagan was found east of the main one. It is possible that one of these tells was designated by "Sarri" or "Sahru". However, Jean-Marie Durand considers that this city should be on an island of the Euphrates.

For me, this place is called "Sharouhen" by the Egyptian hieroglyphics: it is the place where the Hyksos were beaten after three years of siege, and it would be that town which was called Agadé (see the article "Sharouhen = Agadé ? ").


For an explanation on the colors of text, click here.

For French language, click here.

My notes of veracity :

Zarri, Sarri, Sahru, Sarrum or Sehrum designated the same toponym: 2,5/5

Sharouhen or Agadé is in the vicinity of the old Tuttul : 2,55

Tag(s) : #Region: Mesopotamia, #Kingdom: Akkad

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