Tushpa or Turushpa became the capital of the kingdom of Urartu during the 9th century BC, under King Sarduri I. The ancient site is called Van Kalesi. It is a fortress on a rocky ridge north of the current town of Van.
Numerous inscriptions, in different languages, have been found there.
Here is one that leaves no doubt about the old name of the place. It is a translation of Salvani, in 1969, of an inscription on the rocks of Van Kalesi: "Thanks to the protection of the god Ḫaldi, Minua, son of Išpuini, had dug and built this fountain. Thanks to the greatness of Ḫaldi, I am Minua, son of Išpuini, mighty king, great king, king of Biainili, lord of the city of Tushpa."
The human settlement dates back to 5000 BC according to excavations on Mount Tilkitepe, a few kilometers south of the citadel of Van.
In the Neo-Assyrian texts, Turushpa appears as the royal residence of the country of Urartu. Notably, towards the time of the 8th campaign of Sargon II, Ursa left Turuspa, probably following the Cimmerian invasions, to take refuge towards the south-east: