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A stele was found in Kelishin, a pass in the Zagros Mountains, southwest of Urmia Lake, on the border between Iraq and Iran. The stele took the name of the place of its discovery. It contains a bilingual text dated around 800 BCE. It was first interpreted by Friedrich Eduard Schulz in 1827. A copy was made in 1951 by G. Cameron. The stele was erected on the occasion of a pilgrimage to Ardini / Musasir by Ispuini. In the language of Urartu, the titles of King Ispuini are: "Great king, powerful king, king of the universe, king of the lands of Nairi, governor of the city of Tushpa." In Akkadian: "King powerful, king of Sura, kings of the lands of Biana, governor of the city of Tushpa".


Another stele, known as Topzaweh, was discovered between Topzaweh and Sidikan, opposite the ruins of Shkenne, towards the same pass. It is an offering of King Rusa I on the occasion of a pilgrimage to Ardini / Musasir. This town of Ardini / Musasir was a holy place in the country of Urartu, probably at the extremity of its territory.


A text by Sargon II mentions the taking of that same city, which was then the capital of the country of Urartu: "He has razed the land of Urartu and robbed the people of Musasir. In front of him, Ursa, the king of Urartu, killed himself with his own weapon. ... »


For some researchers, Rabat Teppe near Sardasht is a potential candidate for Musasir, for others it is the fortified site of the iron age of Mudjesir or Muǧesir, where two stone statues were found in the province of Rowanduz, in northern Iraq. Dishad Marf Zamua of the University of Leiden, after examining the statues, agrees with the latter:

It is necessary to reconcile this name with the mountain of Musri of other neo-Assyrian texts. Indeed, this other toponym is to be located towards the town of Dur-Sharrukin according to the inscription of Sargon II found in Melid: "I built a city at the foot of Mount Musri, upstream of Nineveh, and I Called 'Dur-Sarrukin'”. This confirms the location of the Iron Age city in Mudjesir.

Musasir is probably a creation of the Urartéens. But this location is important because it allows to position neighboring cities, which existed in the Bronze Age.


For an explanation on the colors of text, click here.

For French language, click here.

My notes of veracity :

Musri or Musasir is the site of Mudjesir: 4/5

Musri or Musasir is the site of Rabat Teppe: 1/5

Tag(s) : #Region: Mesopotamia, #Region: Persian Gulf, #Empire of Assyria, #Kingdom: Urartu, #Kingdom:Nairi

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