Wahsusana is a city that often appears in the tablets of merchants of Kanes: its Karum was one of the largest, comparable to those of Kanes, Purushaddum and Durhumit. KTP14 shows that there was an independent kingdom to Wahšušana. The city provided access to the "Sukinnu Route". A major crisis shook Wahšušana a while: many merchants had to retreat on Kanes taking their tablets.
Researchers have observed that the arrival in Wahsusana was preceded by a crossing by boat (see Orientalia 1998). Moreover, Saladuwar or Ulama (one or the other) are often mentioned to get from Kanes to Wahšušana, through Ninassa and Ussa. Saladuwar and Ulama was two ports of ancient Cilicia (click the links to see the likely locations).
kt93 / K179 is the most illuminating text on the relationship between those cities: Ali Ahum told to Kuziziya: «Because the palace confiscated my goods in your house, come with me to Wahsusana to the palace and let me get money or take back the goods.» Kuziziya replied: «I will not go, I'm scared for my life, and I will not go.» He continued: «If you're scared for your life for the trip to the palace of Wahsusana, let me take you at Ulama or allow me to ask a Commissioner responsible at Ulama. The Commissioner appointed by the head of Walama can transport us to Wahsusana and take care of you while I will resume my goods at the palace. And after that, I can personally take you from Wahsusana to Mamma.»
kt92 / k248 is a letter from two merchants halted at Tuwanuwa whos mention a rumor about the departure of residents of Wahsusana. It seems that the Assyrians have cease to controlled the business operations on this Karum from a certain date. Kt87 / K40 mentions Anatolian natives making illegall trade.
In the archives of Hattusa, KUB 23,116 indicates that Wahsusana was associated with the country of Kassiya.
The instability of trade corresponds to acts of piracy that began precisely towards the end of the period of the Assyrian merchants.
Vounous is located a dozen kilometers from Kyrenia, north of the island of Cyprus. The excavations were conducted by French (C. Schaeffer in 1933) and English (1937-1938). These are mostly burial grounds that have been unearthed, showing objects from Syria or Palestine from the late 3rd millennium BC and early 2nd. But no residential area or palace has been excavated. The site ceased to be busy around the 17th century BC, in line with the texts.
The place name "Vounous" is phonetically a convincing candidate for Wahsusana.
Should we consider that this town is Wassukanna in Kizzuwatna from the Hattusa archives?
Indeed Wassukanna, Arana, Terussa, Uriga, Urussa are Kizzuwatna cities to which Ismerik warriors were assigned. The phonetic proximity between Wassukanna and Wahsusana is obvious: we must admit that the island of Cyprus was part of Kizzuwatna.
That city was it the capital of Mitanni: Wassukanni?
The answer is less obvious because CTH 51 positions Wassukanni to the country of Alse, in the districts of Kutmar or Suta. Unless that must considers that Alse, Alse or Alse was a bad spell of Alasiya.
For an explanation on the colors of text, click here.
For French language, click here.
My notes of veracity :
4000 years ago, Wahsusana was the site of Vounous, on the island of Cyprus: 3/5
3500 years ago, Wassukanna was the site of Vounous, on the island of Cyprus: 3/5