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In tablet kt92 written in Wahsusana, found at Kanesh, it is evoqued only one trading post of the two towns of Saladuwar and Ulama. This means that for Wahsusana, both cities were close. Saladuwar and Ulama are two steps on two different paths often mentioned to get to Wahšušana. That of Ulama passed by Ninassa and Ussa.

The letter kt25 shows that it was possible to have no mule to move from Saladuwar to Wahsusana. It means that it was a journey made by boat. The translators thought it was to cross a river. In fact, we must admit that Saladuwar and Ulama were two southern ports of Anatolia and Wahsusana was another port beyond the sea.

It was possible to go to Purushaddum from Ulama or Saladuwar. However Ulama was most frequently used by Kanesh merchants because, no doubt, this port was located further west than Saladuwar.

Also, it is obvious to assume that Salatuwar was to the present city of Mersin, near the classical Soloi Pompeipolis (click on the link for more info). The tell of Yumuktepe is a good candidate.

The ongoing excavations on the tell Yumuktepe are successful. They show continuous occupation from the Neolithic to the present. A palace and fortifications were identified:

If the connection between Salatuwar or Saladuwar of the Assyrian merchants and Salitta, Sallapa or Salpa of the tablets Hattusa appears natural, this raises the question of the location of the site relative to that of Saliya whose pronunciation starts with the same syllables.

Let us examine in detail the Hittite texts with these names:

1. Salitta appears in the Telepinu lists of cities warehouses.

2. Sallapa is mentioned after Adaniya and the country of Arzawa in the edict ro I 66-69 that describes a general revolt during the reign of Zidanta. This supports our hypothesis location beside the sea, between the two regions of Adaniya and Arzawa.

3. Saliya is on a list of conquered countries (or through which) by Tuthaliya in CTH 142, with the Limiya River, the country of Arzawa, Appaisa, the land of the Seha River, Pariyana, the Haballa, Arinna, Wallarimma and Halatarsa. We see that this is primarily a list of countries close to the sea. The location of Saliya gives sens to the text. Tuthaliya has used boats.

4. Under Arnuwanda I, Sallapa and Pitassa are places of conquest of Madduwatta. The latter had also seized the Alasiya country (Cyprus). That appears consistent. We must also admit that the felon there had maritime capability. The other countries he conquered, with the man of Ahhiya, were also coastal: Iyalanti, Zumarri, Wallarimma, Attarsiya and the Haballa.

5. In the KUB XIX 12 tablet under Arnuwanda the 1st also, fire was set in the city of Sallapa and military operations are described in Mount Nanni, to the country of Mukish, and in the country Arzawa. This confirms, once again, our Sallapa port position between the Mukish and Arzawa.

6. Suppiluliuma at the beginning of his reign, fighted to Mira, the Arzawa, the country Haballa, the Pitassa, Mauirassi, Tawanuwa, Mount Tiwatassa, Alassa, Waliwanta and Sallapa. He thus had ships.

7. Under Mursili II, it's at Sallapa the great king made the junction of his army with that of Sarri-Kusuh king of Carchemish. It is the use of ancient routes of Assyrian merchants by the king of the banks of the Euphrates. Then a battle took place against Piyama-Kurunta to Walma, causing the flight of the inhabitants of the Arzawa who took refuge on the islands and in the fortress of Puranda.

8. According to CTH 68, it is at Sallapa that Mursuli II requested the submission of Mira. But Mashuiluwa had preferred to flee to Masa, leaving the elders of Mira demanding the enthronement of Kupanta-Kuranta.

9. According KUB W = XIV 3 I, it is also in Sallapa that Mursili II has sought the extradition of Piyamaradu who burned Attarima. The Tawagalawa letter describes the effort taken by the king of Ahhiyawa to get it.

 

We must reject a location to the classical Soloi of Cyprus. The geographical position of Sallapa and Saliya was towards the border of Kizzuwatna. This has perhaps generated two cities very close to each other, on either side of the border. Or maybe, one designated the port and the other the inhabited city, the same as the Roman times: Pompeipolis was the Mediterranean port of the city of Soloi.

 

Urhi-Teshub, who was king of Tarhuntassa, appears as king of "Zulapa" in KUB3.56. This clearly shows a location towards this southern coast of Anatolia. The roman name of “Zephyrium” can be issu from “Zulapa”.

 

 

 

 

 

 

My notes of veracity :

4000 years ago, Yumuktepe was Saladuwar or Salatuwar: 3/5

3500 years ago, Yumuktepe was the Hittite Sallapa or Salitta: 3/5

Tag(s) : #Region:Anatolie, #Empire of the Hittites, #Kingdom: Kizzuwatna, #Old Assyrian Empire

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