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Since 1974, the site of Ikiztepe is excavated . It is located on the coast of the Black Sea, at the mouth of the Kizilirmak, north of Anatolia. In 2010, excavations were reactivated with a team of 34 people:

The objects exhumed show a human occupation from 5000 to 1700 BC. A separate tumulus was identified for the Hellenistic period, from 330 to 39 BC.

The skeletons found in the layers of the beginning of the Bronze Age have allowed archaeologists to have an idea of the type of population occupying the premises, but also to see some acts of trepanation:

Based on the so-called legend "of Zalpa" of the Old Hittite Empire, it is possible to have the name of this ancient city from the Bronze Age "Thirty son of Kanes, subject to the whims of the great river (the Kizilirmak), were collected at Zalpa, beside the sea. Later, as adults, back to Kanes, they were not recognized, they had been offered to their sisters. "

This site fits because it is the tell along the nearest large river to the sea and the city is no longer mentioned in Hittite texts from the early New Kingdom.

The city was called Zalpuwa or Zalpa. His last statement appears with Nerik, Kammama, Kastama, in a list of cities destroyed by the Gasagas under Arnuwanda I. The texts of the Old Kingdom of Hattusa not reveal whether the city was attached to the country of Tummana.

Other cities homonyms also exist, including one in northern Syria.

For an explanation on the colors of text, click here.

For French language, click here.

My notes of veracity :

The site of Ikiztepe was the city of Zalpuwa: 3/5

Tag(s) : #Region:Anatolie, #Empire of the Hittites, #Kingdom: Gasgas, #Kingdom: Tummana

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