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For many researchers, the country of Tummana of the Hittites texts found at Hattusa was the Domanitis in Paphlagonia, in modern Turkey. Strabo mentions "Blaena and Domanitis watered by the river Amnias". The Amnias is currently the Gök Irmak.

In the Hittites texts, this country is sometimes associated with Pala. Hutupiyanza was governor of Pala and Tumanna. This is the raison while some researchers do a direct reconciliation "Blaena and Domanitis" with "Pala and Tummana".

Edme Mentelle in 1787 in "Old Geography" clearly positioning this region: "At the center of Paphlagonia was a country that is called Domanitis. It inclosed a sizable city : Germanikopolis". Germanicopolis is the present town of Boyabat built under a castle which antiquity is not proven:

However, Strabo adds, "In the adjoining part to Bithynia there are several cantons, such as Timonitide, the ancient kingdom of Gézatorix, the Marmolitide the Sanisène and Potamie". From the phonetic point of view, the Timonitide is even closer to the place name" Tummana ".

The discussion on the country Tummana mainly concerns its extent : was it restricted to the downstream part of the Gök Irmak, the Pala being the upstream portion (There are two ways to understand the words of Strabo: The Amnias does sprinkles-it both Blaena and Domanitis ? or does he sprinkles only the Domanitis? stretched it to the ancient Bithynia, the Pala rather then being the southern part). The answer to this question can only be obtained by the answer to another: What was the river that the Hittites have called Dahara? For some researchers is the Gök Irmak, for others it is the Devrez Çayı further south.

The reading of texts where Tummana and Dahara appear together shows that Dahara was the Devrez Çayı:

  • Suppiluliuma, from the province of Tumana, made climbing Mount Kassu, which is without question the classical Mount Olgassys, the current Ilgiz Dag. A revolt in the valley Dahara led him to destroy the two countries of Dahara and Tapapinuwa (which were different from that of Tummana).
  • Mursili II undertook an expedition to the land of Tummana. He spent revised its forces at Hathuma in the country of Tummana. The Gasgas left their position at Mount Kulitha. Sapituwa was the subject of operations, this city had been reinforced by some Gasgas of Zihana, near the mount Haharwa and Nerik. They occupied the mount Elluriya (Obek Tepesi for some). A night, an expedition enabled Mursili to surprise his enemy, Pitagatalli, who had organized a Gagas state in the upper valley of the Dahara. Pitagatalli fled across the mountain, while King brings some prisoners and booty to Altanna. Then the king turned against a second opponent, Pittapara, entrenched on Mount Kassu. Nuwanza then had brought reinforcements to Marassantiya. After having ravaging the township of Harapasa, the King crossed the Marassantiya and then returns to Tummana. He visits the Dahara Valley, Pendumli and Pizzumurri have continued to challenge the Hittite power. He ravaged the country of Washaya and Taritara, but the population and herds took refuge on the mount Kurusta. The mount Elluriya and and the mount Kassu are again mentioned. The Hittites have then gone to Athulisa before returning in the Dahara Valley.

So it seems that at the period of the Hittites:

  • Dahara the river was indeed the Devrez Çayı;

  • The Tummana country was the region north of the Devrez Çayı and the Kizilirmak: To reach the valley of Dahara, it was easier to go through the country of Tummana, crossing the Kizilirmak near the sea.

It is likely that the name of this country comes from the name of a city. The assyrian merchants from the early 2nd millennium BC evoke a city called Tamniya which matched. An independent king had his capital there. The Kanes tablets show that the region of Durhumit was a step between Tamniya and the famous karum.

For an explanation on the colors of text, click here.

For French language, click here.

My notes of veracity :

The Dahara river was the Devrez Çayı: 4/5

Under the Hittites, the country of Tummana was the area north of the Devrez Çayı and of the Kizilirmak: 4/5

For merchants of Assur, Tamniya was a city north of the Devrez Çayı and of the Kizilirmak: 3/5

Tag(s) : #Region:Anatolie, #Empire of the Hittites, #Kingdom: Gasgas, #Kingdom: Tummana

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