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In Hattusa archives, there is a king, Labarna, sitting in Sinahuitta under Hattusili the 1st. In the annals of the six seasons, the latter has mentioned Sanahuitta and Zalpa goals of his first campaign. He raided the area, but Hattusili 1st do not seem to have kept the city under his power, because Sanahuitta is also one of the objectives of its third campaign. The city was submitted after a long siege (its location is probably an explanation).

It is now accepted that the city was located north of Hattusa. It is mainly the archives of the Kanes merchants, some centuries before, which showing that Sinahuttum (phonetic approximation is evident with Sanahuitta) was a port, probably of the country Tamniya (called Tummana under the Hittites):

  • A first letter states that after having transported wool from Sinahuttum to Durhumit, it was loaded on mules at Durhumit, with two bales per donkey. Which implies transport by ship from Sinahuttum to Durhumit.

  • Proximity of Sinahuttun and Tamniya is proved by another courier. There was a market for donkeys to Sinahuttum (as in all ports, for handling transshipments between the boat and land transportation) and a market for wool at Tamniya: a letter from a merchant arrived at Sinahuttum, it mention that he keeps his donkeys for selling its remaining wool at Tamniya, he says which town is near, before returning to Zimishuna, most likely another port on the Black sea.

Only Sinop is close to my position of Durhumit and the country of Tummana. It is probable that it was the capital of the country.

Another tablet of Kanes mentions a coalition of a Prince of Sinahuttum, of a man of Amkua and a man of Kapitra against the man of Hattusa.

The modern city of Sinop must hide the remains of the old ancient city of more than four millennia, probably under the castle of the Hellenistic period:

It can also be the mound Kocagöz Höyük dated of the Bronze Age, in the village of Demirci about ten kilometers south of Sinop.

In addition, during the 1st millennium BC, under the reign of Sargon II, a country of Tabal is mentioned in the Neo-Assyrian archives under the name of Shinuhtu. Many kings are known there, including Kiakki which was conquered by the Assyrians, the region was then administered by the King Mati of Atuna.

During the Hellenistic period, Sinope is known to be the birthplace of the Greek philosopher Diogenes the Cynic.

 

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My notes of veracity :

4000 years ago, Sinahuttum was the name of the present city of Sinop: 3/5

3600 years ago, Sanahuitta was the name of the present city of Sinop: 3/5

2800 years ago, Shinuhtu was the name of the present city of Sinop: 3/5

Tag(s) : #Region:Anatolie, #Empire of the Hittites, #Kingdom: Gasgas, #Kingdom: Tummana

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