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During the end of the 3rd millennium BC, Durhumit or Durhumid was an important city for the Assyrian merchants. There was a karum as developed as that of Kanesh, of which it depended and with which he had a very close relationship. It was a place best known for the trade in copper:

Other letters of Kanesh show that the region of Durhumit was a step between Tamniya (the countries of Tummana located on the Black Sea) and Kanesh.

In "Kültepe Tabletleri VI" Mogens Trolle Larsen publishes the archives of Salim-Assur, which was operating towards the end of his life from Durhumit, the city in which he died. A notary has been instructed to settle the outstanding amounts. On this occasion, the translators of the tablets realized that most of the debts were in the hands of merchants of Kuburnat. Also, the tablets that were recovered and brought back to Kanès show that Salim-Assur realized its wholesale trade especially with Kuburnat and Burushattum with which he had a big financial problem. In each of these places he had one or several employees who have donkeys to trade with the hinterland.


The archives of Hattusa, some centuries later evoke a city called Durmitta. Many researchers have made the connection between the two names. Durmitta was a border city, a sanctuary where Telepinus was honored. Of the area of Hakpis, Durmitta was also a stage town to go to the Valley of Dahara and the countries of Tummana and Tapapanuwa.

Some researchers see this city towards the plain of Terme, where Greek historians have positioned the city of Thermiscyra or Themiscyra. Herodotus mentions it as the main town of the Amazons : Thermodon. The phonetic approximation is close. But the precise location of the Hellenistic city had a problem. At a first glance, it is logical to consider that it is the present city of Terme, at the east of the mouth of the old Iris. The town is bathed by a small river of the same name. But no ruin confirms an ancient occupation. Advocates of this view believe that, according to the written sources, after the retirement of Mithridates VI of Pontus, the city was besieged by Lucullus and because locals showed exceptional bravery it would have been completely destroyed. They consider that the geographer Ptolemy made a mistake by placing the city between Iris and Cape Heraclium further west.

Others follow Ptolemy and see the site of "Dündartepe Höyüğü" incorporated into the present city of Samsun, as the ancient Thermiscyra. Again, a small river waters the site. The tell "Tepe Toraman," northwest of the modern city of Samsun, was the classic Amisos: a Byzantine mosaïc was found there, which actually opens another possible ancient name to "Dündartepe Höyüğü". The analysis of the texts of Assyrian merchants leads me to consider that it was the ancient Zimishuna.

Tekkekoy, Kocamanbasi Karpu and Kale are other hypotheses, as shown by this study:

It is likely that the houses of this city were made of wood, a construction material that leaves no trace of which has been found on ancient sites near the Black Sea.

In any case, the ancient city of Thermiscyra was a port. Most studies on the trade routes of the Assyrian merchants seem to take: it is not envisaged that some transport between cities could be done by boat. Maybe not at first generations of Assyrian merchants: for the stuffs of Assyria toward Durhumit they had the choice between several routes, one of them was called the "narrow passage" and is exclusively seen to date as a mountain route.







My notes of veracity :

4000 years ago, the city of Durhumit was called Durmitta by the Hittites: 4/5

3500 years ago, the city of Durmitta was called Thermiscyra by the Greeks: 3/5

2000 years ago, Thermiscyra was the present town of Terme: 3/5

Tag(s) : #Region:Anatolie, #Empire of the Hittites, #Kingdom: Gasgas, #Kingdom: Tummana

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