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In southern Turkey, close to Tarsus, from 1930 to 1940, under the leadership of Miss Hetty Goldman, an American expedition excavated the Gözlü Kule mound.

His work has shown that it has been continuously occupied from the Neolithic to the Bronze Age:

  • Around 3000 BCE, the excavations have unearthed monumental buildings, houses and Northern Syria characteristic potteries.

  • Towards 2500, aligned houses and streets intersecting at right angles resemble those of the Minoans. Some destructions are observed from 2400. A fortified wall is then built. The plans of the houses vary. The potteries and jewelry similar to what has been found to Troy.

  • During 2100 BCE, further destruction are observed. The characteristics of the occupants of the houses appear, again, be those of Syria.

  • Under the Hittites, Tarsus is a major city or even the regional capital. 65 seals or seals footprints, Hittite hieroglyphics, were found. Fragments of alabaster and lapis lazuli, gold work molds and a statuette attest to the prosperity of the city. Many specialists think, on the base of these excavations, that Tarsus was a local capital.

  • Subsequently, archaeologists have observed a gradual degeneration of the city, probably related to the abandonment of port activities. The accumulation of silt has gradually removed the city from the sea.

The most significant discovery is made by a seal of the Isputahsu Kizzuwatna who signed a treaty with Telepinus of Hatti.

In tablets found in Hattusa, despite its importance, the city is rarely mentioned:

  • Some religious foundations, associated with extensive areas were inaugurated by a certain Talzu at Adaniya, Tarsa and Kummani; then confirmed by Sunassura.

  • In the Treaty of Ismérik, the city appears under the name "Terussa" in the country of Kizzuwatna.

In Turkish, this town name is pronounced "Turus". However, it not be confused it with Taruisa which is, according to most experts, the city of Troy in the country Wilusa. Phonetically Wilusa also is close to Ullassa, which I consider to be the site of Elaioussa Sebaste, to Tarsus. Perhaps there is confusion between the names of couples Taruisa / Wilusa and Terussa / Ullassa.

It is possible that Tarsus was a local capital in the 3rd millennium BCE. During the middle of the 2nd millennium, Adaniya were the major place under the growing influence of the Syrian nation.

The phonetic proximity of Terussa (and Tarsa) with Tarsus, the membership in the land of Kizzuwatna and results of excavations confirm the assertion of the title of this article.

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My notes of veracity :

The site Gözlü Kule is the ancient city of Tarsus, called Terussa or Tarsa under the Hittites: 4/5

Tag(s) : #Region:Anatolie, #Empire of the Hittites, #Kingdom: Kizzuwatna, #Kingdom: Quwe

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