Adana is probably the oldest of the largest cities of Turkey. But archeology has not provided that evidence: traces of previous millennia are probably still buried under the modern city.
The ancient history of this city was reconstructed essentially on the base of a phonetic approximation with the Hittite Adaniya.
However, the recent discoveries of neo-Hittite stelae in Karatepe and Arsuz confirm the name of the town.
During the 2nd millennium BC, the texts of Hattusa showed that Adaniya was at the heart of a country called "Kizzuwatna" which is fairly well known from the millennium environment through several treaties defining the borders. The Assyrian texts of the beginning of the first millennium BC evoke a country of "Que", which seems to correspond to the old country of Kizzuwatna.
Here are the majors indications in the Hittite texts:
- In the Edict of Telepinu, Adaniya appears among the failure of his predecessor Ammuna "Hazga, Matila, Galmiya, Adaniya, country of Arzawiya, Sallapa, Parduwatta and Ahhula. When the king was campaigning, he returned with decimated troops" ;
- Religious foundations, associated with extensive areas were opened by a certain Talzu at Adaniya, Tarsa and Kummani; then confirmed by a sovereign whose name is Sunassura ;
- KUB XXIII 21 is the story of an expedition of Arnuwanda I through the Kizzuwatna. The crossings cities are Zunnahara, Adaniya and its bridge, Sinuwanda, Hiya [...] and Zullita ;
- Finally the treaties between Tuthaliya and Sunassura defining the border of Kizzuwatna abundantly mention Adaniya.
At Ugarit, a letter was found from a queen describing his trip: "At sea, I write this document to your attention. Today I stay at Malum, tomorrow it will be Adaniya, the third day Zunnahara and the fourth at Unug. Now, you are informed."
Malum would be Mallos in Cilicia.
My notes of veracity :
The city of Adana, Turkey, was called Adaniya under the Hittites: 5/5