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Plutarch and Dio Cassius have positioned the classical Talaura in Cappadocia. But that city is best known for being the site of a mountain fortress of Pontus where Mithridates VI hid his most precious treasure, which was found by Lucullus. At that time, Talaura is located very close to the borders of Little Armenia : the Romans reported that, in his flight, Mithridates gained with great difficulty Comana (located near the current Tokat) by the mountain, and, pursued by Marcus Pompey and a Roman body, he passed in Little Armenia around Talauro.

The center of the modern city of Turhal, in the region of the Black Sea, Turkey, is actually occupied by a large fortress on a rocky peak which is called Talaura. Yet the ancient name of this city is rather accepted as Gaziura.

Here is a photo of 1918:

A similar city name appears in the Hittite texts 3,500 years ago:

CTH89 is a treaty of Hattusili II or III, between the Hittites and the Gasgas of Tiliura and the surrounding towns. It evokes many rules of life regarding access to the city-fortress. It is thus stated: «If someone buys a slave or a servant Gasgas, it will not make the climb to the city; they will remain in his service outside». These rules show that, presumably, Tiliura was very cramped and height: which corresponds to the ancient fortress of Turhal.

Note that this treaty CTH89 has reminded that Tiliura was deserted, and then repopulated, and that his father had not crossed the river Kummesmaha. Most researchers believe that the Kummesmaha is the classic Lykos (Kelcit Cay today) while Turhal is on Yeşilırmak, ancient Iris. But the text can evoke a nearby border river, different from the river that runs through the city. It may also, that before joining the river Zuliya - which is accepted as the classic Scylax - the upstream part of Iris was called Kummesmaha during the time of the Hittites. This is the opinion of most Turkish archaeologists. This river, called Kummesmaha was the border between Hatti and the land of Azzi / Hayaza, as it was between the Pontus and Lesser Armenia 1500 years later.


For an explanation on the colors of text, click here.

For French language, click here.

My notes of veracity :

The classic Talaura is the center of the present town of Turhal: 3/5

During the Bronze Age Tiliura was the classic Talaura: 3/5

Tag(s) : #Region:Anatolie, #Empire of the Hittites, #Kingdom: Hayasa-Azzi, #Kingdom: Gasgas

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