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Kayalipinar is located near Sivas on the upper valley of the Kizilirmak, Turkey.

Conducted by the Ministry of Tourism and the Turkish Culture in collaboration with the German Philipps University of Marburg, excavations have recently delivered 25 cuneiform tablets. Rieken Elisabeth Marburg has found the place name "Samukh" on one of them, dating from the early second millennium, the period of colonization by the Assyrian merchants. She says the place name, four times on the same tablet, concerns goods for the organization of a festival of Ishtar Samuha, and leaves no doubt about the ancient name of the site Kayalipinar: Samux, Samukh or Samuha.

This name is known on the tablets of the capital of the Hittites. Samuha appears in the list of Telepinus warehouses. CTH40 says that the city was the basis for Tuthaliya III to conduct its offensive against Kummaha. Suppiluliuma did the same, Samuha was his main base to fight the Gasgas of Hayasa. In this city, as well as Washaniya, after each campaign, he brought captives and booty. Samuha was a royal residence during the end of his reign.

Kbo VI described the sacking of Hatti by the Gasgas during the so-called concentric invasion. It states: "By far, the enemy of Azzi came and sacked all the High Country and made Samuha its border." This means that before the reign of Suppiluliuma the border with the country of Azzi / Hayasa was farthest east.

Later, Arma-Tarhunda, son of Zida, brother of Suppiluliuma, has practiced acts of black magic in Samuha, which was known to have a shrine of Istar. A trial took place and he was exiled to Alasiya with his wife and a son.

Istar of Samuha is mentioned many times in the wars fought against the Gasgas. And Kbo XVI 36 evokes battles on a river bridge of Zuliya - the classic Scylax today Cekerek - the Gasgas occupying the Sakudunuwa mountain, Sispinuwa and Sarpunwa but Istar of Samuha remained alongside the Hittites. The same tablet evokes Karahna and Tapikka, confirming their vicinities.

For an explanation on the colors of text, click here.

For French language, click here.

My notes of veracity :

The Kayapinar site was Samuha during the Bronze Age: 4/5

Tag(s) : #Region:Anatolie, #Empire of the Hittites, #Kingdom: Gasgas, #Kingdom: Hayasa-Azzi

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