During 1925, Czechoslovakian archaeologists, led by Bedrich Hrozny, made the first serious excavation of the site Kültepe, located 19km northeast of Kayseri in Anatolia. They had been attracted by informations provided by vendors of cuneiform tablets from illicit works.
The excavation of the main knoll has identified a palace destroyed by fire with thick walls of 1.50 m to 2.30 m; but no tablets.
Helping by more specific informations, the surrounding fields were examined, showing fragments of tablets and walls of mud brick habitats. It was the right place for the former lower town: almost every room exhumed have provided its share of tablets of 10, 20, 80, sometimes up to 250 units. Their translation said that it was the Karum, ie a commercial place. The letters which are contracts and financial documents, were done by merchants. Their names were Ina, Su-Laban, Su-Anum, Lakipum, Pusu-Kin, Sumi-Abijah, Assur-muttabbil ... It appeared that, while most of these traders resided elsewhere, the family of Pusu-Kin lived at Kanesh. The translation of the tablets showed that Kültepe was, during the third millennium BC, the town of Kanesh. It was a place of living of Assyrian-Babylonian merchants. Kanesh is the name of a paleo-Assyrian city which was called Nesa by the Hittites. It is now recognized that most of the 21,000 exhumed tablets date from the first half of the 2nd millennium.
Translations are still in progress. They provide abundant place names which for the most part are not positioned. The important cities had also a Karum: Durhumit, Tamnia, Sinahuttum, Washaniya, Purushattum, Wahsusana and Zalpa. It should be noted that the country of Hattum and Hattusa, in which many other cuneiform tablets have been exhumed, also appear there, thus consolidating the knowledge of the towns of the Bronze Age.
These elements are a major source of this blog.
Since 1948, excavations are still ongoing by Turkish archaeologists. A discovery has recently been made:
My notes of veracity :
Kültepe is the ancient city of Kanesh or Nesa : 5/5