At Kerma, Sudan, south of the third cataract of the Nile, a Swiss archaeologists mission, led since 2002 by Matthieu Honegger, continuing research on three successive cities large areas, dated from 3000 BC to 400 AD.
Many sites Mesolithic and Neolithic identified in this region show that it was densely inhabited during antiquity. Grain storage and livestock farming are certified in it around 3000 BC.
From 2500 to 1500 BC, archaeologists have unearthed the capital of the kingdom, associated with a necropolis. Today this ancient country is called most often kingdom of Kerma by default because the ancient name of the latter does not unanimous. It is likely that the kingdom and its capital were called by the same name. Some researchers, however, give it the name of Kush or Cush based on Egyptian hieroglyphics.