What were the cities of the Bronze Age ?
This site aims to find the names of cities excavated by archaeologists, relying mainly on ancient texts. Conversely, it aims to geographically position the cities and countries of the oldest writings.
The site of Limyra is close to modern Finike (this latter name comes from the classic «Phoenicus») on the southwest coast of Anatolia. It is 6 km to the northeast, in the inland. Archaeological research has begun in 1969, three years after the discovery of the Pericles Heroon by archaeologist Jürgen Borchhardt. The German Archaeological Institute, the University of Frankfurt / Main, the University of Vienna and the Austrian Archaeological Institute have take over the excavations.
Zumarri appears as part of the response of a protest of the great King Tuthaliya III about an invasion of the Haballa by Mudduwatta. This troublemaker then replied that he recognized that the Haballa belonged to the king, but said that the country of Iyalanti, Zumarri and Wallarima he had conquered by the sword were his.
Was it the city of Sumur called Zemar by the Phoenicians ? abundantly mentioned in the letters of Amarna?
In EA60, Abdi-Ashirta said to Pharaoh of Egypt: "I am a servant of the king and a dog of his house, I kept all Amurru for the king. [...] There is Pahanate my Commissioner. The king, the sun, may ask him if I did not keep Sumur and Ullassa. When my Commissioner was on a mission for the king, the Sun, I have kept the Sumur grain harvest and of all the countries for the king. "
In the texts of Amarna, coming from Byblos, Sumur is clearly located after Ullassa. The place name of Ullassa, Ulassa or Alassa is present in the texts of Hattusa on the south coast of Anatolia, first in the list of cities of Telepinu warehouses, and also in the annals of Suppiluliuma, which intervened in Pitassa, Mount Tiwatassa, then to the city of Alassa.
But it is especially the introductory sentence of Abdi-Ashirta as "servant and dog" that allows to consider its origin from the Lukka region (Lycos in Greek means wolf or dog).
Here are two other arguments:
In EA89, the King of Byblos wrote to the Pharaoh of Egypt: "The king is he happy that Abdi-Ashirta became the master of the sea that is in front of you? "
Kbo VIII 16 shows that Bentesima, a king of Amurru, was in charge of protecting and escorting various diplomatic missions between the capitals of Hatti and Egypt. In back of the same tablet, it is written: "When your father came to Arzawa ...".
This location proposed for Sumur is not proven by archeology. It is the same for the other cities of Lukka mentioned in the Hittite texts. I think that, probably, this seafaring people used the wood for their crafts and for their homes. Moreover, Amarna texts say that Sumur was completely destroyed.
Today, the specialists have locate Sumur at Tell Kazel, relying on a description of Strabo who located to this area the small town of Simyra. I think the famous geographer had rather evoked Samra, ie the small village near the ancient Ugarit. The excavations of Tell Kazel showed an occupation beginning towards the end of the Bronze Age, from the thirteenth century BC. Which normally should rather be the date of the end of the occupation.
I think that a part of the southern ports of Anatolia were the country called "Amurru" by the peoples of the Levant. However, the Amarna letters reveal that before the offensive of Abdi-Asirta and his son Aziru, the ports of Sumur and Ullassa were available to the Pharaoh of Egypt, who had delegated their use to the King of Byblos. Probably a part of these port cities were grouped under the name of Mukish, which capital was Alalakh.
In tablets of Alalakh, Limyra appears there under the name of Simeri.
My notes of veracity :
The site of Limyra was called Zumarri by the Hittites: 3/5
The site of Limyra was called Zemar by the Phoenicians: 3/5
The site of Limyra was called Sumur in the Amarna Tablets: 3/5
Tell Kazel was the city called Sumur in the Amarna Tablets: 2/5
The site of Limyra was called Simeri in Mukish: 3/5