What were the cities of the Bronze Age ?
This site aims to find the names of cities excavated by archaeologists, relying mainly on ancient texts. Conversely, it aims to geographically position the cities and countries of the oldest writings.
The medieval Islamic literature reveals that this town called Awlas near the Lamas River was the border of the Byzantine Empire.
From the bronze age, three tablets found in Hattusa evokes a name like Elaiussa :
The list of warehouses of Telepinu: Ikkuwaniya (Ikonion, Konya) Hurniya (Korna to Konya) Hadawa ... Hurutta, Terumna, Ulassa, Parminiya ...
The annals of Suppiluliuma mention some operations to Pitassa, towards the cities of Alassa, of Waliwanta and of Sallapa.
KUB XL 2 I 30 certifies a town called Hulassa near Tarsa.
I am convinced that it is the city of Ullassa in the Amarna letters. EA105 is the most representative about Ullassa and Sumur. It's a letter of Rib-Hadda to Pharaoh : "Let the king thinks of Sumur. Sumur is like a bird in a trap. The son of Abdi-Ashirta on earth, the Arwada people on sea are against it day and night. I sent three ships to help, but the people of Arwada were there to intercept them, and they came out! Think about people of Arwada. When the archers have advanced, they had not taken possession of all that they had taken to Abdi-Ashirta, and their ships, as agreed, left Egypt. Consequently they are not afraid. Now they took Ullassa and they try to take Sumur. All that belonged to Abdi-Ashirta, they gave it to the son, as now they are powerful. They took the ships of the army with everything that was there, and I can not go to the aid of Sumur."
Ulassa is probably called Uluzi on the statue of Idrimi of Alalakh, of the country Mukish. It evokes an expedition to the North, against the Hatti, against seven fortresses and commercial places: Passahe, Damarut-re'i, Halahhan, Zisi, I'e, Uluzi, the capital and Zaruna. Zaruna is also mentioned as a place of battle of Hattusili I.
The Italian archaeological excavations did not detect any habitat before the 2nd century BC. But the whole site has not been examined.