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Early in the first millennium AD, Pinara was one of the six great ancient cities of Lycia, southwest of the modern Turkey. Today, it is an unusual site, isolated in the pine forest, overlooking a cliff riddled of temples and tombs carved into the rock, near the village of Miner in the province of Muğla.

Pinara the Lycian had a large port, over time, was silted up and is now in the ground. The city was conquered by Alexander the Great in 334 BC before passing under the control of Pergamon.

This city of Lycia was probably called « Pinata » during the Hittite Empire, towards the end of the second millennium BCE. This is the result of the analysis of two main writings :

  • The inclusion of Yalburt: Pinata appear along with many other towns of Lukka - including Wiyanawanda, Napir, Luwanda, Huwalatarna, Talawa, Patara - just before Awarna , which is now indisputably located toward the Xanthos;

  • The letter of Milawatta: Pina is also mentioned together with Awarna. There are two cities that have been the subject of negotiations for hostages exchange with the other two cities of Utima and Atriya.

A posteriori, the translations of the Hittite tablets has show how the Greeks have reviewed the history of their cities, ignoring the ancient kingdoms of the Bronze Age to the interior of Anatolia and reworking constantly their founding myths. For example, in Sidyme, the Solyma of Strabo, was found a text of Hiero, known to be a mythologist, in the political line of his time on the mythical genealogy of the Lycian cities : while Patara, during the Hellenistic period, was the equal of Xanthos, Pinara and Tlos, as founded by three brothers, it was demoted in Rome claiming that Pataros was only the son of Apollo and Lykia, a daughter of Xanthos.

For an explanation on the colors of text, click here.

For French language, click here.

My notes of veracity :

The site of Pinara was called Pinata under the Hittites: 4/5

Tag(s) : #Region:Anatolie, #Empire of Egypt, #Kingdom: Lukka

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