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In the second part of the second millennium BC, under the Hittite king Hattusili III, a war against the men of Lukka had seen them arrive at Kuwalapassa. They put their borders at the top, on one side at Zallara in the Lower land and on the other side in the country of Harzuina. A short of drinking water had stopped some of the protagonists at Kuwalapassa.


Most historians consider Kuwalappassa was the Greco-Roman Telmessos. For other researchers, Kuwalapassa would be located north of Lake Kestel. It would be an unidentified site in the town of Kaynar Kalesi near Kusbaba.


I think Harzuina is a distortion of the pronunciation of Arzawa, due to a scribe during the reign of King Suppiluliuma: the intermediate step "Arzawiya" is identified during the reign of Thuthaliya I, II or III. The Lower Land was at the east, the country of Arzawa was at the west of the city.

The geographical position of the Greco-Roman site of Kelbessos, in height and north of Lukka, gives more sens to the Hittite texts than Telmessos. The phonetics is also in favor of this latter town in Pisidia.


Kelbessos is located in the mountain Örentepe, over 1000 m high in the west of Antalya, 12 km from Termessos. Some inscriptions show that the site existed during the Hellenistic period. A wall protected the city. To date, Kelbessos has not been excavated, so its age is not determined.

Inscriptions on the sarcophagi shows the name of the Pisidian town: the goddess Artemis Kelbessis was worshiped there.





My notes of veracity :

The site of Telmessos was Kuwalapassa under the Hittites: 2/5

The site of Kelbessos was Kuwalapassa under the Hittites: 3/5

Tag(s) : #Region:Anatolie, #Empire of the Hittites, #Kingdom: Lukka, #Kingdom: Arzawa

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