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In his description of Egypt, Herodotus mentions an oracle, famous in his time, associated with the goddess "Leto" in the city of Buto, in the mouth of the Nile called Sebennytic, near the sea. He describes a temple in honor of Leto at Buto.

An Englishman, Sir Flinders Petrie, during 1886, has positioned the first this city in the Tell el-Farain ( "Hill of the Pharaohs"), north-northwest of the Nile Delta, south of the Lake Borollos.

The site of Tell el-Fara'in was the subject of various excavation campaigns still ongoing. A large quantity of pottery shows trade with Palestine at the beginning of the 4th millennium and an occupation during about 500 years in the pre-dynastic period.

A shrine to Wadjet has been dated to the Twelfth Dynasty. Some other relics, statues and architectural parts are dated from the New Kingdom. However, archaeologists have found significant gaps during the period from 2200 to 650 BCE.

Excavations have confirmed the identification of the city, and the equivalence between the goddesses "Leto" and "Uadjit". The temple of the latter gave his name to the hieroglyphic name of the town : "Per-Wadjet." The Greek name is recognized as a deformation of the Egyptian name : "Djebaut" then "Buto".

French researchers are involved in the work:

Some translators of hieroglyphics have promptly announced that during the Old Kingdom, the site corresponds to the two towns of Pe and Dep, frequently mentioned with Wadjet, which means also "green".

During the 2000s, the German Institute of Oriental Archaeology was interested in the oldest layers without having demonstrated that there were two cities separated by the branch of the Nile.

Now, the same Egyptologists consider only Dep alone as a former name to Buto by reference to the most frequently encountered qualification of the Pyramid Texts, "Dep, the city of Wadjet."

In the Hittite Empire, a sun goddess of Arinna was worshiped in cities other than the one called Arinna. The building of a monument in favor of the goddess allowed people to honor her on site, without having to travel abroad. Also, there is no reason to consider that "Per-Wadjet" was otherwise named during the Old Kingdom.


For an explanation on the colors of text, click here.

For French language, click here.

My notes of veracity :

Buto is the Greek name of the site of Tell el-Fara'in: 4/5

Per-Wadjet is the Egyptian name of the site of Tell el-Fara'in: 4/5

Dep is the Egyptian name during the Old Kingdom of the site of Tell el-Fara'in: 2/5

Pe and Dep are Egyptian names of the Old Kingdom of the site of Tell el-Fara'in: 1/5

Tag(s) : #Empire of Egypt, #Kingdom: Lower Egypt

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