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Herodotus reported that the Mendésiens worshiped all the species of goat, bucks more than females. They did not touch goats, but they sacrificed sheeps. He says: "The goat and the god Pan are both, in the Egyptian language, the name of "Mendes". This means that the city had a different Egyptian name than Greek one's.

Indeed, in Egyptian hieroglyphes, the city was called "Per-Ba-neb-Djedet" or "Banebdjedet" see "Djedet". "Banebdjedet" is also a name of God: it was probably the most commonly used designation, the one mentioned by Herodotus. Ashurbanipal, in the 7th century BC, mentions this city "Bindidi".

The city of Mendes was the capital of the XXIX dynasty in the 4th century BC. The Tell el-Rob'a, (also known as Tell el-Rabee) north-east of the Nile Delta, is its ruins. They were the subject of American excavations during 20 years. The remains of the royal tombs of the XXIX dynasty have been found there. Moreover, a black granite sarcophagus of Néphéritès I had been exhumed from 1869. Thus showing, without question, that the city of Mendes was well located there.

Recent excavations in the necropolis of Minshat Ezzat confirmed that the city was inhabited from the pre-dynastic period and the first two dynasty. A gap of several hundred years between the Middle Kingdom and the New Kingdom may explain the discovery of another name for the oldest city: Enebet or Anebet. This name is found in the texts of Hemiunu, Vizier of Cheops.

There were several nearby cities, which may explain the different names:

The abundance of literature in Roman times enabled a fairly precise identification of names of towns during the beginning of the first millenium AD.

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My notes of veracity :

Mendes had its ruins at Tell el-Rob'a: 5/5

"Per-Ba-neb-Djedet" or "Banebdjedet" was the Egyptian name of the city of Mendes: 4/5

Enebet was the Egyptian name of the city of Mendes during the Old Kingdom: 3/5

Tag(s) : #Empire of Egypt, #Kingdom: Lower Egypt

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