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The site of Warka, Iraq, was excavated for the first time during years 1850 and 1854 by William Kennett Loftus. From 1912 until now, German teams of the Deutsche Orient-Gesellschaft do the archaeological research.

The site was occupied for about 5,000 years, from the beginning of the Ubaid period. At the end of the fourth millennium, it was the largest city in Mesopotamia and probably around the world, with an estimated population of 50,000 inhabitants.

After the third millennium the city declined politically. But it remained an important religious center.

The country name of "Iraq" would come from Uruk after his Persian deformation "Eraq". It may be, too, that the site's current name comes from Uruk.

Originally, there were two temples called Kullaba and Eanna. There were two monumental buildings of brick. One called Eanna was associated with the goddess Ishtar or Inanna. The oldest traces of writings on clay tablets were found in the temple. The Warka constructions have taken place after the symbolic deposit of a tablet. These are the foundation deposits which have identified the Uruk city unambiguously. A brick of Eanna says : "Sin-Kâsid son of Nin-sun, king of Uruk, manufacturer Eanna. "

This same Sin-Kâsid, on a clay nail bears the titles of king of Uruk and king of Amnanu. This is the Amorite tribe « Amnanu » that prevailed towards the first half of the second millennium BC. Some consider that the Amorites are those that come from the sea (the people of the sea). I am one of those people, and I think they also knew navigate the major rivers and the Amnanu are descendants of Amînum of the éponymale chronics of Mari. It would be Sinhoué, the hero of an Egyptian legend, known by the hieroglyphics under the names of Ameny Kemaou and Sehetepibrê (with his name, some scarabs were found in different tells of the Levant and a sledgehammer handle in Ebla).

To date, more than 1,000 tablets were found on Warka. One of them states that the wall around the city, along about ten kilometers, is a construction of the legendary King « Gilgamesh » : "Anam, a old man of Uruk, son of Belsemea, who restored the wall Uruk, an ancient building of Gilgames. "

For an explanation on the colors of text, click here.

For French language, click here.

My notes of veracity :

The site of Warka was Uruk : 5/5

Tag(s) : #Region: Mesopotamia

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