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Bonaparte's expedition visited the city of Armand, 15 km south of Thebes, and has observed the ruins of an old building, still visible at that time. Jean-François Champolion in 1828 identified it as a temple created by the last Cleopatra to celebrate the birth of Caesarion, the son she had with Julius Caesar. At the beginning of our era, Hermonthis, so identified by Champolion in Armant, was the capital of the 4th Nome of Upper Egypt.

Later, archaeologists have unearthed a temple of Montu nearby. Archaeological excavations are still ongoing, with a French team led by Christophe Thiers.

The chief god of the city, Montou, is the origin of the Greek name of Hermonthis, and of the current name of the city. Indeed, in Egyptian hieroglyphics, the city is called Per-Montu, ie the "domain of Montu." This god was worshiped there since the beginning of the Middle Kingdom.

The hieroglyphs of the temples of Thebes and Dendera have deliver some mentions of Montu-Re-Horakhty, master of "Iunu Chema", ie Master of "the southern On" or of "the southern Heliopolis". Also some Egyptologists consider the same town is the former Iuny or "southern Heliopolis", a designation that others give to Thebes.

I find that the assignment of this last name is not based on sufficient evidence. And Tutankhamun was called "Master of the Heliopolis of the south" while he reigned over all of Upper and Lower Egypt.


For an explanation on the colors of text, click here.

For French language, click here.

My notes of veracity :

Hermonthis was the Greek name of the present city of Armant: 5/5

Per-Montu was the hieroglyphic name of the present town of Armant: 3/5

Heliopolis of the South was the former hieroglyphic name of the present city of Armant: 1/5

Tag(s) : #Empire of Egypt, #Kingdom: Upper Egypt

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