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"Khirbet Kerak" or "Beth Yerah" (which in Hebrew means "house of the moon god") or "Al-Sinnabra" is a tell of 22.5 hectares located west of the Jordan River near the Sea Galilee. Its dimensions are approximately 1 200 meters by 300.

The site was surveyed in 1920 by Eleazar Sukenik, then by William F. Albright. In 1933, due to work related to a new Samak-Tiberias road that now crosses the tell, Na'im Makhouly has conducted salvage excavations.

Between 1940 and 1955, B. Mazar, Mr. Stekelis, Mr. Avi-Yonah, P. and M. Guy Bar-Adon have carried out archaeological research. But other wild excavation took place thereafter.

The site was occupied between the 4th and 3rd millennium BC (from 3400 to 2200 BC). A Egyptian pallet shows a relationship with the first dynasty of pharaohs.

A massive structure, probably that of a temple or a warehouse, was built around the middle of the 3rd millennium. It was composed of eight concentric circles of stone.

The city was destroyed around 2000.

The site gave its name to a type of pottery characterized by a finishing giving it a burnt appearance with red, black and brown. This is a contemporary ceramic of the temple. It originates from northern Anatolia and the Caucasus. It was found in a large area around "Khirbet Kerak" in Syria and Palestine.

Ker-Aha seems to be the probable Egyptian name of Kerak ( "ker" means "marketplace") according to the "Instructions of Amenemope," also called "teaching of Amenemope". Many authors have found similarities between this book of wisdom and the "Book of Proverbs." The author of this text is presented with numerous titles, including those of:

  • Director of the harvest;

  • Customs funeral offerings to the borders of Aakhu;

  • Member of the Chamber of Deputies of Kam (Egypt);

  • Supplier of Ahat, who stores barley;

  • Rapporteur to the city of Apu.

The last part of the name of Amenemope is significant: Opis is the Greek name of the country of Upi, whose capital was then Apu, ie Jaffa. The Ahat appears to me to be the name of the warehouse of Ker-Aha. The title "Member of the Chamber of Deputies of Kam" is indicative of an individual who lives outside of Egypt. By Aakhu, Amenemope evoks the inhabitants of another neighboring country.


For an explanation on the colors of text, click here.

For French language, click here.

My notes of veracity :

Khirbet Kerak was called Ker-Aha by the Egyptians of the second millennium BC: 3/5

Tag(s) : #Region:Levant, #Empire of Egypt

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