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Herodotus, who visited Egypt, mentions Heliopolis as a major city of his time. Later, in the 1st century AD, Strabo has observed an ancient temple built in Egyptian way, a monumental dromos and some obelisks. There saw no human statue, only those of animals.

Diodorus, Herodotus of Halicarnassus, Hecataeus, Eudoxus of Cnidus, Plato, Pythagoras and many others have stayed to tap the knowledge of priests of the god Re.

The city was still visible during the Bonaparte's expedition: a report of its gigantic wall was done. Only an obelisk is still on the outskirts of the present city of Cairo : Ain Shams. Probably this last name has the same origin as Ahni mentioned by Ashurbanipal in the 7th century BC, ie Iunu or Iwnw in hieroglyphic texts. Tutankhamun was prince of Iunu of the South.

Most historians consider that “Iwnw of the South” or the “Southern Heliopolis” was Thebes. But there is no proof. It may as well be a qualifier distinguishes homonymous cities : a city of Heliopolis in Syria is certified under the Roman period.

Excavations have shown that this city was important, therefore, the time of Herodotus and the Ptolemies, but especially during the Old Kingdom. It's Djoser of the third dynasty, who built a shrine to Re. According the Westcar papyrus, the first three kings of the Fifth Dynasty would have been the sons of the sun god and the wife of the high priest of Heliopolis.

For an explanation on the colors of text, click here.

For French language, click here.

My notes of veracity :

Heliopolis, an ancient town of the suburb of Cairo: 4/5

Iounou, was the hieroglyphic names of Heliopolis: 3/5

Tag(s) : #Empire of Egypt, #Kingdom: Lower Egypt

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