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The Tell Es-Sakan was discovered by chance in 1998 following the construction of a building. What we know comes only from a rescue team Franco-Palestinian, carried out in 1999 and 2000.

The tell Es-Sakan is a Palestinian archaeological site in the Gaza Strip. It has an area of ​​5 ha. The archaeological sequence of the site, nine layers of nine meters, covers the period from ancient bronze 3300-2350 BCE. Two phases are distinguished: an Egyptian occupation on three levels and a Canaanite occupation for the remaining six levels. The city was surrounded by a fortification that was destroyed and rebuilt. The tell of the foundation layer belongs to the pre-dynastic Naqada III culture. The maximum power of the city is located towards 2650. It was abandoned around 2350, like many other cities of the Levant at that time. Evidence of global insecurity in the area around the time of Sargon of Akkad. Human occupation takes over on the tell Are Ajjul very close, 500 meters, from 2100 BC. Continuity of use of the same city name is possible.

Two Amarna letters evoke Endaruta, a Aksapa man, a follower of Pharaoh. In EA 366, a proximity to Akka appears : Endaruta, the man of Aksapa came with Surata, a man of Akka, to the help of Suwardata, Mayor of Qiltu. Translators have concluded that Aksappa was the Akshaph of the Bible. This last name is confirmed as being a port due to the discovery of stamps with this name in the Phoenician ports.

Phonetically and geographically Es-sakan and Es-Ajjul could be this city.

Here is a communication of Mr. Pierre Miroschedj on this search:

Communication of Mr. Pierre Miroschedj

Here is an Egyptian site dated from before the existence of Egypt. These findings raise the question of the formation of the Egypt of the pharaohs and the existence of an initial power center which, to me, seems located south of the Levantine coast.

Tablets, found both in Babylonia and Ebla, evoke, I think, this city under the spelling of "Akshak". Enshakushanna conquered this city of the country of Upi and Kish, he claims to have ransacked and captured his king Enbi-Eshtar.

I think Kish is "Kush," the designation of the west of the Red Sea by the Mesopotamians.

Why Tell Es-Sakan can be Akshak?

  • First phonetically, the approximation is obvious,

  • The ancient city, according to Mesopotamian tablets, was located to the country of Upi, which Damascus was the capital around 1350 BCE,

  • Akshak appears in the Mesopotamian tablets, as close to Kish,

  • Finally, archaeological sequences are aligned with the translated texts.

In fact, a list of tablet royal dynasties of Mesopotamia reveals a dynasty of 6 kings of Akshak which have reigned for 99 years, between two dynasties of Kish: this corresponds exactly to the first layers of the tell, which show that the city was Egyptian.

In the Weidner chronic, a king of Akshak is mentioned as a contemporary of Kug-Baba of Kish, the woman innkeeper, the only woman who reigned over all Sumer, and that would be of the time of the pyramids.

Around 2450 BC, Eannatum of Lagash has repelled a raid of the king Zuzu of Akshak, and has destroyed Akshak. And because Inana loved him, Inana gave the sovereignty over Kish at the master of Lagash. Then Eannatum has confronted Kish, Mari and Akshak, from the Antasurra of Ningirsu.

During year 2350, Akshak is mentioned in the Ebla tablets : Akshak was in the hands of Lugalzagesi of Umma.

The Akkadian king Shar-Kali-Sharri, during year 2325, said to have defeated the Elamites in a battle of Akshak.

According to the archaic texts (listed temples of Abu Salabikh), the deity of Akshak would be Sin, the moon god.

His name appears to be Sakhebou in the Egyptian hieroglyphics. This city is mentioned in the tale of Westcar Papyrus which chronicles the birth of the first three Pharaohs of a new dynasty. The wife of the great Ra Priest of Sakhebou, was visited by the god who created with her the next line of pharaohs.


For an explanation on the colors of text, click here.

For French language, click here.

My notes of veracity :

Aksapa of Amarna tablets was the Tell El-Ajjul : 4/5

Akshak was the Tell Es-Sakan: 3/5

Sakhebou was the Tell es-Sakan: 3/5

Tag(s) : #Empire of Egypt, #Region:Levant, #Kingdom : Upi

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