Why this neighboring country of Egypt is known only by some historians?
In fact, it is possible that this name was changed over time : the "p" has become a "d" locally. Until the conquests of Alexander the Great, the "Judah" name was adopted by the Hebrews, during this time the Egyptians continued to call this territory "Yapu", "Upu" or "Apu" and the Akkadians "Upi ".
These are the Amarna tablets that revive the memory of this country:
Among the Hittites, a few years later, the country was known as "Apina". He was hit by the northern army during the Second Syrian campaign of Suppiluliuma.
And this region was it outside of Egypt or was it, usually, a component of the land of the pharaohs?
An early response is in the « Instructions of Amenemope », which date from the second half of the second millennium: the Egyptians seem to have created an institution,"The Chamber of Deputies of Kam" to govern the subjects of the neighboring country. "Jaffa" was the connecting port of the annexed territory that seems to have a special status, primarily established by Thutmose III.
What was the geographic extent of the country of Upi?
A country name "Apum" appears in the archives of Mari, from the 18th century BC.
It is not mentioned in the letters of Taanach. Only Megiddo is evoke as a stronghold. Also, it is likely that the taking of Megiddo by Thutmose III has resulted in the creation of a border on the town, for a better control of it.
At the time of Akhenaton in the north of the Mediterranean coast, the country is limited by the Canaan town of Hinnatuna (Hanaton), which is in the land of Canaan in the letter EA8 of Amarna (the king of Babylon to the king of Egypt). It is the place of a murdered of merchants. The city of Akka also appears there.
Further south, the Amarna letters evoke a country of Garu, which was to be located to the east of the Dead Sea. There was also a country of Djahi, difficult to position. No indication regarding Gaza and the city of Lakisha, both mentioned in the Amarna letters.
The existence of this country a millennium before is not to excluden (see here).
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