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Since 2010, a team of archaeologists from the University of Leipzig, in coordination with the University of Pennsylvania and Salahaddin University in Erbil, excavates the site of Satu Qala, located in the district of Koi Sanjaq in Iraqi Kurdistan, on the banks of the Zab between Erbil and Kirkuk.

Early polls showed an occupation of the site since 11,000 BC, covering the Neolithic period, the Uruk perod and the Bronze Age.

The tell appears being consisted of many palaces with decorative paintings. One of them shows a sphinx with a human head and the body of a lion. Above it is an inscription: "Palace of Ba'auri king of the land of Idu, son of Edima, also king of the land of Idu.

In the archives of Mari, the same region is called country of Uta, see Utâ'um. It depended of Susarrâ, with a region name, Utum, which is significant of the prestige that had this city of "Idu" or "Ita" in the local history.

Utum is extensively mentioned in the tablets found at the Tell Shemsharah, the city of Šušarra, a few kilometers upstream of the Zab.

The discovery of Idu, and the name of his region, gives a response of the outlines of the Idamaras (XIV 51 of the Mari archives). Obviously the Utum was among them. And it may even, that "Idu", "Ita", "Ida" is the origin of the first part of the name "Idamaras" the second being "Marhash" or "Warahshe" a region of Iran today not positioned, but well known by other older texts.


For an explanation on the colors of text, click here.

For French language, click here.

My notes of veracity :

Satu Qala was the city of Idu, Itu or Utum : 4/5

Tag(s) : #Region: Persian Gulf, #Region: Mesopotamia, #Kingdom:Mari, #Kingdom:Idamaras

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