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The city of Luluban mentioned in the Akkadian texts of Gasur, was the capital of Lullubi towards the second half of the 3rd millennium BC.

The famous stele of Naram-Sin of Akkad illustrates the battles between the Babylonians and the people settled in the Zagros Mountains. 23rd century BC, they formed a country that, for some historians, was extended from the upstream half of the Diyala River to the Lake Urmia. In the geography of Sargon, Lubdi is located in the country of Arrapha. The most famous kings are Satuni (2230-2200), Immashgun (2200-2170) and Anubanini (2170-2150). The latter appears to be the author of the inscription of the rock reliefs of Sar-e Pol-e Zahab, Iran : "Annubanini, powerful king of Lulubum, made this picture of himself and an image of the goddess Ishtar on Mount Batir ".

Historians also attribute to the Lullubi the rock reliefs of Shikaft-i Gulgul, less well preserved.

The country of the Lillubi, and its specific language, disappeared at the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC. However the Nuzi archives still evoke the people and appoint its capital by Lubdi, while at the Neo-Assyrian period, the city was spelled rather Ellipi. Sennacherib devastated the region and detached the cities of Sissirtu and Kummahlum from the Bit-Barru District to integrate them into the land of Assyria.

The Lullubians are also mentioned in the Tell Shemshara tablets, during a research of cereals providers.

Other oldest inscriptions show that the kings of Assyria have fought in this region, "from the mountain Siluna, toward the sunrise, to the cities of Qa, Ellipi, harhar, Araziash, Misu, Mada. .. ". Ellipi is often mentioned with the city of Harhar. It appears, from this last text, to be at its east.

The presumed location of Luluban or Ellipi is very close to Alabjah, southwest of Lake Zeribor, Iraq. The present city of Alabjah would have inherited his name, but no archaeological excavations have confirmed this hypothesis.

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My notes of veracity :

Luluban or Ellipi, of the land of Lullubi, was the city of Alabjah: 3/5

Tag(s) : #Region: Mesopotamia, #Region: Persian Gulf, #Kingdom:Mari, #Empire of Assyria, #Kingdom of Lullubi

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