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The Yamutbal is certainly neighbor of the Numha. Here are two examples from the archives of Mari:

In A.3757, it is specified: "Hammurabi of Kurda has plundered the Yamutbal and he took from Numha 2000 sheeps and 40 people. "

The tablet VI 42 says: "The herds graze between Numha and Yamutbal ...".

Warad-Sin and Rim-Sin, two brothers, ruled over a kingdom that included Larsa and the Yamutbal. Some historians believe they were from Elamite origine and that the formation of this country was the result of a decision of Larsa by their father, Kutur-maduk, sheikh of Yamutbal, in the wake of the conquests of Elam.

Probably this kingdom had no territorial continuity and comprised two separate regions. Some texts refer to a "High Yamutbal" or "Yamutbal superior", opposite a South Yamutbal that included at least Larsa, Mashkan-Sapir and Razama of Yamutbal.

The southern has belonged to this country for about two generations of men, since it was conquered by Hammurabi of Babylon, who besieged successively Mashkan-Sapir and Larsa few years before the destruction of Mari:

But regardless of his southern part, the High Yamutbal has continued his existence. It included the cities of Andarig, Yankiha (Yanik Tepe), Asala, probably Harbu of Yamutbal, but also Kakmum and Hubsalum according to the archives of the Tell Leilan. He seems to have incorporated much of Northwest Iran, to the west of the Caspian sea and having a boundary that fluctuated with the Numha because A.1097 evokes Hamadanum in the Yamutbal, while XXVI 419 includes it in the Numha.

For a long time, in the bronze age layers of the archeological sites around Lake Urmia, especially in the period 1800-1500 BC, the archaeologists found potteries similar to those of the Khabur region : the translated texts were differents with the results of the excavations. The proposed location hypothesis here for the Numha and the Yamutbal makes much more sense: the mountains of Zagros was not an obstacle to human exchanges, on the contrary, they were appreciated for their ability to offer shelter.

Curiously, several texts show that the Yamutbal was a colony of the Yamhad : In L.87-929+ 944 Hammurabi Aleppo said "Why Astamar-adad (King of Kurda) Mutija (King of Andarig) and Sepallu have took control of Kakmum troops and destroyed the countries of Yussan and Yamutbal and brought these regions beyond my power? "But L.87-462 + 489 teaches that Hammurabi Aleppo decided to send 10,000 men during 2 years to help Mutija of Andarig.

1000 years later, a Neo-Assyrian inscription mentions that Sargon II disrupted the country Kakmu passing above the mountains of Andia (probably a diminutive Andarig) and Zikirtu (Sissirtu of the tell Shemsharah).


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Tag(s) : #Region: Persian Gulf, #Kingdom:Mari, #Kingdom: Yamutbal

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