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Here is an excerpt from a tablet tell Leilan which gives a good view of the geographical position of the country called Numha during the first half of the second millennium BC: "In the country which is located behind the mountain, they started to kidnap citizens of cities, Numhéens but also all men (other nationalities) who live there. A man of Allahad has escaped and has told me this: "The robbers returned after spending the river and in the country of Jassan joined Azuhinum". I'll try to have more information on these troops to communicate to my father. For here, where are the 100 soldiers of reinforcements asked to my father? If you, Astamar-Adad and Sepallu had sent troops which I request, they would be in the borders of your country, in the district that I am responsible for keeping, since the peaks of Mount Saggar throughout the country of Jassan. Here is your town or is it not yours ? "

This suggests that the Numheans living in eastern of tell leilan after the country of Jassan, Yussan or Hassan, beyond the Zagros Mountains, not to Sinjar.

I consider the country of Numhâ is one that was successively called Namar (under Nebuchadnezzar I, during the 12th century BC) and Namri and finally Nammiri during the Neo-Assyrian Empire. It was located between the countries of Ellipi and one who became later one of the Medes.

Here is what Gaston Maspero wrote about this region: "For a long time, the people of Mesopotamia maintained close relations with those of Media. Three roads led them through the valley of the Tigris to the plateau of Iran: one, the most widely used, crossed the Great Zab and emerged into the Lake of Ouroumiyèh basin by the collar of Kélishin; the other driving through the pass until Bannèh North Ecbatana; Finally, a third went up the little Zab. For the three, caravans brought to Nineveh the Central Asian products, gold, iron and copper, textiles, precious stones, carnelian, agate, lapis lazuli, sometimes finally animals curious, elephant, rhinoceros and camel with two humps of Transoxiana. Also most of the kings of Nineveh wanted to own the Namri district. They stumble at warlike tribes, similar tribes to the mores and the audacity of these Kurds of today, on which their so-called Turkish and Persian masters exercise only a primacy of the most contested. To the south, on the border of Edam and Susiana, Aramaic was still a dominant element: there were countries of Oumliyash with his Bit-Ishtar capital, the cantons of Bit-Sangibouti, Bit-Kapsi, the cities of Girgira, of Akhsibouna and twenty others whose names betray their origin. In the second line, but always on the Elamite border, the peoples of Ellibi unfurled from northwest to southeast. The deep wooded valleys that are widening the tributaries of the Tigris and Oulaï, they offered retreats where tanks and heavily armed foot soldiers of Assyria could hardly reach: they still managed to beat them, but all the conquerors of the ancient world, Persians, Macedonians, Parthians strove in vain to subjugate them. At the North of these barbarians, but south of the lower Zab, the Namri, then northeast, the Parsoua, completed the living barrier that separated the central plateau of Nineveh.

According to Maspero, therefore, the present border between Iraq and Iran were three regions, from south to north, the Oumliyash between Ouknou and Tigris, the country of Ellipi and finally the Namri which had three passes.

The most famous cities of Numha evoke by Mari archives are: Kurda, Kasapa, Hamadanum, Burallum and Karana some time.

About a thousand years later, in Namri, the neo-Assyrian archives mention the cities: Bit-Sangibuti, Bit-Hamban, Sumurzu, Barrua, Bit-Zualzash, Bit-Matti, Bit-Kapsi, harhar (then called Kar-Sharrukin) Kishesim and Ellipi. The overlap between the two periods is limited to three cities:

This shows a fairly significant renewal of cities and / or a shift of borders during the Bronze Age and during the following centuries, which seems near the borders of modern Iraq, with an extention northwards.

Simma'ila-hanem is a king of Kurda known in the archives of Mari for having made a trip to the banks of the Euphrates: extreme attention and the greatest respect have been take for his coming.

The translators of the Mari texts have been deceived by the displacement of people. During the conquests of Samsi-Addu, specifically those of his son, Isme-Dagan, the II99 tablet shows that people from Numha and Yamutbal were sent into slavery to Terqa.


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Tag(s) : #Region: Persian Gulf, #Kingdom:Mari, #Kingdom: Numha, #Empire of Assyria

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