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Bit-Sangibuti is mentioned by Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria during the 8th century BC, being in the country of Namri with Bit-Matti.

Before him, Shamsi-Ramman king of Assyria during the 9th century BC, has left us a long text of an expedition through the mountains of Zagros: "After the Zaban river and mountain Silar, he received in the country of Nairi, the tribes of the kings of Hubushkia, Sunba, Mana, the Parsua, Taurla, composed of horses. [...] And of the city of Sibara, where he left an engraving of that his royal person has done in the country of Nairi, the stronghold of Gizilbunda. Then he walked towards Mata. People were scared. The king pursued them and killed 2300 of them and captured 130 horses. Finally the Assyrian king had burned down the royal city of Sagbita, before returning to the mountains of Musri and fight Araziasha to fill the ravines of the bodies of enemies warriors."

Besides the city of Sagitta, the latter text allows to find the place name of Bit-Matti or Mata on the border of the countries of Nairi and Urartu, known at the time that they incorporate Musasir near the north east of Assyria.

François Thureau-Dangin who has studied the geographical location crossed by the 8th campagn of Sargon, in 1912, positions rather precisely a number of cities, including that of Sangibutu. The town appears north of Lake Urmia.

Shamsi-Ramman described an expedition to the east of Assyria going up to the north.

The best candidate for Sangibuti is the site of Bastam which has his first traces of settlement back to the third millennium BC. The Urartrean fortress, from the 7th century BCE, takes a latter name of "Rusa-i Uru Tur" in Elamite in memory of king Rusa.

The same place name, writes "Segibbu", was found in the archives of Tell Shemsharah during the 18th century BC, 1000 years before. It is a step of a journey of Kushija that allows joining Samsi-Addu, passing successively by Zaslum, Segibbu, Zikum, Ura'u, Lutpis, and country of Haburatum.

The starting point is uncertain, it may be Šušarra, ie the Tell Shemsharah, or Zaslum which can be understood as the city of residence of Kushija. Moreover, in the text, it is referred to the winter weather conditions that can block the traveler. And it is possible that the proposed route offers the advantage of having less high mountain to cross. Here is my proposal to locate the cities of this journey:

  • Zaslum is Assala, ie the Teppe Hasanlu.
  • Segibbu is the city studied here, positioned on the site of Bastam.
  • Zikum probably one city to the country of Ardzik.
  • Ura'u would be the ancient writing of Urartu.
  • Lutpis, may be the ancient name of Bitlis.

The Country of Haburatum is at the north of present Syria, where was Subat-Enlil, principal place of Samsi-Addu residence, which was reached presumably by the Tigris Valley.


For an explanation on the colors of text, click here.

For French language, click here.

My notes of veracity :

Sangibuti, Sagitta, or Segibbu is the Assyrian name of Bastam, northwest of Iran: 3/5

Tag(s) : #Region: Persian Gulf, #Empire of Assyria, #Kingdom: Urartu, #Kingdom: Numha, #Kingdom:Nairi

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