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Assurbanipal in the 7th century BC, mentionned Sais with Memphis. One king, Necho reigned over these two cities. Despite an uprising, Ashurbanipal tells that this sovereign pardoned by covering him with gold before returning to his country.

Herodotus visited Sais in the fifth century BC. It evokes:

  • some works of Amasis in his capital and his tomb;

  • a fest of lamps;

  • numerous monuments, including a sacred lake, a recumbent colossus and a temple in honor of Athena, which, today, after the translation of hieroglyphs, is assimilated to the goddess Neith.

The expedition of Bonaparte to Egypt had helped reminded the location of the ancient city to the western countries. In 1828, Jean-François Champollion will be one of the first to visit it. He found the location of the temple of Neith in the large enclosure whose remains were still visible in his time. The city of Sais was the seat of the 26th Egyptian dynasty, from 643-525, known as the Saite dynasty name.

Most of the monuments discribded by Herodotus has not been recovered because its ruins are now in poor condition: they are situated west of the Nile delta, on the village of Sa-Hajar who kept his name hieroglyphic : Sau or Saou.

Steles and statues of various museums certify that the city of Sais was best known for its temple of Neith, mainly during the 1st millennium BC, but also during the New Kingdom at the time of Ramses II.

Recent excavations campaigns have confirmed that the city already existed in the Neolithic. Wooden labels a pharaoh of the first dynasty, the Horus Aha, show that he visited Sais at the beginning of the Old Kingdom. The earliest hieroglyphic texts confirm that, from the Old Kingdom, Sais played an important cultural rôle.

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My notes of veracity :

Sais, a city known since a long time and positioned on the village of Sa el-Hajar, west of the Nile Delta: 5/5

Tag(s) : #Empire of Egypt, #Kingdom: Lower Egypt

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