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Strabo, a geographer from the very beginning of our era, mentioned Hierakonpolis among the cities of Egypt, adding: "At Hierakonpolis a hawk is honored."

During the Egyptian campaign of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1798, a first topographic map was made by Vivant Denon of a site located approximately 100 km north of Aswan, on the village of Kom al-Ahmar. In 1894, at the same location was unearthed a temple dedicated to the god Horus, represented as a falcon. It was at this point that the rapprochement with the Hieracompolis of Strabo was done:

During the Old Kingdom, the city was fortified by a rectangular wall of 300 by 230 meters. It's this scope - brick buildings in earth and stone foundations - which was first excavated by Quibell, Green and Garstang in the late 19th century.

By expanding their research, particularly along the Nile, they exhumed the oldest tombs of the pre-dynastic. At its peak, the city had to approach 10,000. This was a major discovery dated from the beginning at the pre-dynastic period and ending at the second dynasty. They found the famous Narmer palette.

Some non mummified skeletons are accompanied by servants and animals such as dogs with leather leash.

Recent discoveries there were publish by the press:

Here are two arguments about the Egyptian name of Nekhen for this ancient city:

  • At Mo'alla, further north, the tomb of Ankhtifi, monarch of the First Intermediate Period, evokes Nekhen among the three nomes which he was responsible.

  • The walls of the temple of Edfu describe a religious festival consisting of a meeting between Hathor of Dendera and Horus at Edfu. This was a Nile navigation between the two locations with various stages, including one at Nekhen.

As for the name "Hierakonpolis", it does not unanimous: some researchers consider that it is rather a Greek name of Edfu.

Nekhen and Nekheb (Elkab), which was on the opposite bank, became all the religious and political capital of Upper Egypt in the late pre-dynastic and during the first dynasty.

For French language, click here.

My notes of veracity :

The ruins of Kom al-Ahmar are the old city of Nekhen : 5/5

Hierakonpolis is the Greek name of Nekhen: 2.5/5

Tag(s) : #Empire of Egypt, #Kingdom: Upper Egypt

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