During the 7th century BC, Assurbanipal, king of Assyria, evoked "Memphis": "I arrived at Kar-Baniti. Taharqa, the king of Egypt and the land of Kus, in Memphis, learned the arrival of my expedition and mobilized against me his warriors to battle. [...] He left Memphis, to save his life, he fled to the city of Thebes. I took both cities. ". Before him, Esarhaddon had already conducted a major campaign in Egypt and reached Memphis, the royal city.
With Thebes, this town was then one of the most important cities of Egypt. "Memphis" comes from a Greek deformation of the name of the pyramid of Pepi I, "Men-nefer". This name is attested in the late Middle Kingdom. It is frequently used in the New Kingdom.
The city included many temples mentioned by successive historians: Herodotus, Diodorus, Strabo, etc .. One of them the "Hout-ka-Ptah" gave the current name of the country: "Egypt."
The ancient city is located a few kilometers south of Cairo, near the spot where the Nile becomes a delta.
During year 1820, the first excavations of Memphis have unearthed the largest colossus of Ramses II mentioned by Herodotus:
The Egyptologists suggest other names for that city. The oldest is that of Ineb Hedj - the "White Walls" - which we have recently found a trace:
"Men-nefer" and "Ineb Hedj" are certified by their presence on the Rosetta Stone, as being the "Memphis" of the Greek version.
According to Manetho, Memphis was founded by the first king of Egypt, Menes. The city was a capital of the Old Kingdom.
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My notes of veracity :
Memphis, ancient capital of Egypt has its ruins a few kilometers from Cairo: 5/5