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During year 1998, a discovery of stelae and tombs in the town of Hakkari has been the subject of press articles:

The discoverers argue that these are tombs of kings Hupushkia or Hubushkia, mentioned in various neo-Assyrian texts.

Indeed, Shalmaneser III, around the 11th century BC, reported several expeditions through the mountains to destroy Hupushkia, to frighten the king of Nairi. In one of his last campaigns, from the north west of Assyria, his journey led him to Arzashku, Aramale and Zanziuna, the sea of Nairi and Gilzani. From Gilzani he reached Shilaya, the stronghold of Kaki, king of Hupushkia.

Later Shamsi-Ramman king of Assyria during the 9th century BC, has left us a long text of an expedition through the mountains of Zagros and mentions having received the tribe of Dadi, king of Hubushkia.

This is the detailed annals of Sargon II 8th campaign that are the most accurate. Hubushkia is reached towards the end of the expedition, which, according to my research was around the Lake Urmia : beginning at the east, then to the north and ending at the west. The cities of Usqaia, Tarmakisa, Sagbita, Armarili, Anzalia and Uaiais the old are all cities that justify this itinary. After reaching Uaiais, its army has approached four milles of Hubushkia. It makes sense to situate it to the west of the lake of Urmia. Shilaya may be the present Silvana and Gilzani the city of Golagani.

A thousand years before, Hubushkia was called Hubsalum, the city of the god Nergal. Indeed, without "alum", a suffix meaning "city", the beginning of the name is the same.

This city is mostly mentioned in the archives of tell leilan. In the text L.87-929 + 944, it's in Hubsalum that Burija, king of Andarig, gathered his army. This sovereign refers to Sin, the lord of Yamutbalum and Nergal, the king of Hubsalum, which therefore was in Upper Yamutbal.

A sword with the words "Nergal of Hubsalum" was found to Diyarbakir, in Turkey. The tablet A.4260 of the archives of Mari alluded to such an act of deposit. This is a letter from the respondent of Samas to Zimri-Lim: "Nergal, the lord of Hubsalum, has help you to defeat your enemies. He took the side of your army. All you had promised him, a large bronze sword, do it ! and brings it to Nergal, Lord of Hubsalum !"

That's why I position Hubsalum, called also Hubushkia, to Hakkari during the 2nd and the 1st millennia BC.


For an explanation on the colors of text, click here.

For French language, click here.

My notes of veracity :

During the 1st millennium BC, Hupushkia or Hubushkia was the Hakkari region: 3/5

During the 2nd millennium BC, Hubsalum was Hakkari: 2.5/5

Tag(s) : #Region:Anatolie, #Empire of Assyria, #Kingdom: Yamutbal, #Kingdom:Nairi

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