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In his time, when he evokes the great religious festivals of Egypt, Herodotus mentions the fest of Isis at Busiris, "In this city, built in the middle of the Delta, is a large temple of Isis, which is in Greek language, the goddess Demeter. "

Before him, Ashurbanipal, during the 7th century BC, mentions in a list of kings of Egypt, Susinqu king of Bushiru.

In early Christianity, this city still existed. A bishop of Busiri was present at the Council of Ephesus in 449. Its ruins, imposing, are located in the town of Abu Sir Bana.

Pliny noted that the temple of Isis was north of the city, outside the walls of the latter. They correspond to the still visible ruins in the village of Bahheyt, about 15 km from Abu Sir Bana. The expedition of Bonaparte acknowledged them. Some scientists were there and have observed the remains of Isis head columns.

The sites of Abu Sir Bana and Beheyt were never been excavated. They decline years after years. This makes questions about the choices of archaeological priorities in Egypt.

The name of Busiris come from a deformation Per-Osiris, the "Castle of Osiris" due to the presence of a sanctuary dedicated to Osiris:

Specialists believe that Busiris is a Greek name. Yet the Arab designation "Abusir," is very close. Jean yoyotte notes that there was in Egypt at least seven villages in the name of Abusir, and that probably they corresponded to as many Greek names "Busiris". Notably, another known Abusir is a necropolis in the southwestern of Gizeh, also designated "Busiris" in many texts.

In Greek mythology, Busiris was an Egyptian king who, already in the time of ancient Greek, was the subject of many interpretations :

In egypts funeraries texts is often encounter the term "Osiris, lord of Djedu". Consequently, it was considered that "Djedu" was the most ancient Egyptian name of "Busiris". The translators of these texts are so sure that they systematically replace "Djedu" by Busiris.

So why the Assyrians have called this city : Bushiru? This latter name is in phase with the Arabic name Abu Sir and with the Egyptian name "Per Osiris", but not with Djedu alone.

In the Hittite Empire, a sun goddess of Arinna was worshiped in cities other than the one called Arinna. The building of a monument in favor of the goddess allows to honor her on site, without having to move. Also it is not because, most often, Osiris is called "Lord of Djedu" that Djedu was the name of all the cities that had a temple of him.

However, the last part of the current name "Bana" may be derived from "Neb". "Per Osiris Neb Djedu" means "the temple of Osiris, lord of Djedu". It's a city name entirely plausible. Some deformations such as "Per Osiris Neb Zed" or "Per Osiris Dedu" are well documented in texts: in lists of nomes, and also on the stele of Piankhi who mentions many cities in his conquest of the North.


For an explanation on the colors of text, click here.

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My notes of veracity :

Busiris, or Bushiru, is the ancient name of the site of Abu Sir Bana: 4/5

Per-Osiris Neb Djedu is the name of the hieroglyphs of the site of Abu Sir Bana: 3/5

Djedu is the Egyptian name of the site of Abu Sir Bana: 1/5


Tag(s) : #Empire of Egypt, #Kingdom: Lower Egypt

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