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In the Habur region, Tell Brak was an important urban center, one of the largest during the Uruk period: it extended over 110 hectares at its peak. Some homes of the period have been identified there, as well as the typical Uruk pottery. The site shows the remains of the 7th to the 4th millennium BC.

The "Temple of the eyes" is dated to around 2500 BC. This is an unusual monument with walls adorned with cones forming a mosaic of places with inlays of colored stones, and a platform for altar decorated with gold leaf, lapis lazuli, silver and white marble nails. The central piece is shaped like a T. The most remarkable remains the discovery of over 200 "eye idols": these are figures that were bloated eyes serve as votive deposit.

The site has been explored since 1930 by Mallowan, husband of Agatha Christie. More recently, from 1976 to 1993, new excavations took place under the direction of David Oates, then from 1994 to 1996 under that of Roger Matthews. The site is still being excavated.

The Tell Brak has delivered written documents:

  • about 23 tablets or fragments of tablets, most dating from the third millennium BC;

  • a seal of a sovereign calling Talpush-atili proclaiming himself King of Nagar.

This last document identified the tell Brak to the city of "Nagar". Another seal of a king Nagar and Urkesh with the name of Atal-Shen was found on the Tell Mozan located nearby. In the 18th century BCE, these two cities were in Idamaras, which appears as a conquest of the Mariotes on northern neighbors who spoke another language.

Nagar is mentioned a dozen times in the texts of Ebla.

Found in many tablets, including those of the Mari archives, a term "lady of Nagar" was closer to that of "lady of Nawar" queen of Guti. Today, it is accepted that Nawar and Nagar were that city. Yet in the archives of the tell Leilan a treaty with the King of Kahat describes the boundaries of his kingdom as being from Nawar to Nawar, suggesting that there were two cities of this name.

For French language, click here.

My notes of veracity :

The Tell Brak, Syria, was the city of Nagar: 3/5

The Tell Brak, Syria, was the city of Nawar: 2.5/5

Tag(s) : #Region: Mesopotamia, #Kingdom:Idamaras, #Kingdom:Mari, #Kingdom: Akkad

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