The construction of the dam of Keban was an opportunity to excavate the closest tells the Upper Euphrates in Turkey, between 1969 and 1973. A clay seal on behalf of Ari-sharruma king of Isuwa, was found on Korucutepe.
In this region, archaeologists have unearthed many tells close to each other. Kurucutepe and Norsuntepe are the best known:
S Mitchell, Mc Nicoll and S Helms, under the direction of D. French, have excavated Asvan Kale, Taskun Kale and Taskun Mevkil. This work revealed, as on most other sites, occupation since the Neolithic to the Bronze Age.
The Isuwa had two important resources: fertile farming and copper mining of Ergani / Maden.
The discovery of this seal of a king of Isuwa of the Bronze Age and the indication of the country of Enzite of Isuwa in Neo-Assyrian texts can confirm that Isuwa designated an area in the Elazig loop east of the Euphrates and around the Tigris sources. This is the region which was called Sophene during the roman empire.
In the Hittite archives, this country is extensively mentioned in connection with Mita of Pahhuwa who had intervened in countries of Isuwa and Kummaha.
Also, it is possible to make a list of neighbors of Isuwa:
- During the Bronze Age: the Kummaha to its north and west, rather Pahhuwa north-east, the country of Subartu in the south and east.
- Later, Isuwa joined the Hittite Empire, the country of Suhme was at the east and Dara at the southeast.
It is possible that this same country - or parts of it, or larger groups - was also designated, in the late 2nd millennium BC, Azzi, Alse or Alzi. However Tiglath-Pileser I distinguished a Alzi share with Purukuzzu, in the country of Subartu, and secondly Isuwa with Daria. This gives an argument to those who believe that Alzi rather corresponds to the Armenian Aghdzenik.
For French language, click here.
My notes of veracity :
The country of Isuwa was situated around Elazig, in Turkey : 3/5